staminate and carpellate are the two types of ___________ flowers
imperfect (one sex present)
A plant with carpellate flowers would only produce ______ and ___________
eggs ; fruit
When one purchases a coconut, they are actually buying a seed, not a fruit. In fact, it is the largest known seed. Most of the coconut fruit is removed prior to selling. Given what you've now learned about seed development, which of the following best describes the bulk of what is eaten?
A tree trunk becomes wider and taller with each passing year. The growth in height that you observe is due to the shoot __________ _________.
photosynthesis, uptake of water, & vegtative reproduction are all functions of ____________
storage of nutrients, transport of nutrients & water, and physical support are all fuctions of _______
Pineapple leaves are unique so that they help capture ________, photosynthesize, and supply nutrients to the rest of the plant
A dioecious plant must have flowers that are ___________.
the stigma, style, and ovary are all that make up the ___________ of flowering plants
the carpel in flowering plants is made up of ___________ (3)
stigma, style, & ovule(or ovary)
two fertilization events that take place in the _________ are called double fertilization
In flowering seeded plants, the seeds consist of an embryo (_n), endosperm (_n), and a seed coat that has (_n) tissue
diploid; triploid; diploid
sexual reproduction is a function of roots. (T/F?)
________ are an eample of modified stem. such as potoatos are examples of these
vegetative reproduction does not involve seeds; it is reproduction by ___________
All flowering plants are homosporous, (i.e. they produce spores of one kind only) (true/false?)
most plants follow a pattern of _____________ growth, while most animals have a pattern of determinate growth.
_________ contains the nutrients needed by the developing embryo in a seed; it is triploid
petals are gamete producing structures (T/F)?
the male structure of the flower is called the __________; it contains the filament(support stem) and Anther (pollen producer)
The ______ is the pollen producing male structure of a flower
the male pollen must reach the female ________ for pollenation to occur
pollen produce the ______
a seed is composed of _______ parental tissue and new _______ sporophytic tissue
____________ are more closely related to angiosperms than any other nonflowering plants because they are the only gymnosperms to undergo a process known as double fertilization
In _____________, two sperm cells enter the ovule; one fertilizes the egg and the other fertilizes another cell within the ovary.
in a nonflowering pineseed, the embryo is ___________-, it is encased by haploid ____________, and the bulk of the structure is parental ____________
sporophytic, gametophytic, sporophytic
In seed plants, the ___________ generation is more reduced than in seedless plants
In seed plants, the microgametophyte is the _______________.
compared to flowering seed plants, nonflowering seeded plants lack ___________
In a pine tree, _____________ has occurred when the pollen grain enters the micropyle.
The pollen tube _____________________.
conveys the sperm
the mature pine tree (and fern) is a _____ophyte, while it goes through meiosis and mitosis, then the new developing pine tree(/fern) is called a ______________ophyte
micrgametophytes are male, while _________ are female. these female structures allow pollenation through an opening called ____________
a _____ is a fertilized mature ovule
______-- are slow growing and long lived perennials. They are dioecious (male + female)
cycads (ginkos also)
_____ are monoecious OR dioecious.
seedless vascular plants THRIVED because of their vascularity; their advantage was ...
growing taller over the competition
vascular tissue consists of _______ & ________
xylem ; phloem
_________ is primarily the vascularture that transports water and minerals(nonliving cells) (roots up to stem & leaves)
___________ transports the sugars made during photosynthesis down to the roots for energy (leaves & stem to roots)
Vascular tissue gives support to plants. __________ is embedded in plant cell walls between the cellulose matrix, and it is a very stable molecule that does not break down easily. We are able to use wood in construction because of the strength that (this) provides
The leaf (frond) and antheridium are exemplary of alternation of generations in ferns because...
the leat is (2n) and antheridium is (1n) pre-zygote stage
_________ produces spores! always!
sperm are produced in the male gametangium-- the "____________"
eggs are produced in the female gametangium, the "_________"
_________ are the root-like structures that function to anchor them to the surface they are growing on, however, they are not capable of water uptake
________ plants grow close to moisture and close to the ground. (moss)
___________ is made of lipids and due to their properties are solid and disallow water permeability, preventing disiccation (good for dry land area plants)
Modern land plants have much in common with the group of green algae called __________, and charophytes are the closest relatives of the plant kingdom.
the moss lifecycle: the dominant form is ___________ (_n); mitosis- _______ state(_n)-meiosis-mitosis to return to dominant state.
gametophyte (1n); sporophyte (2n)
You are walking along a road and observe a plant growing near a puddle of water. The plant body is growing well above the ground, but you do not see any evidence of flower structures or seeds. Based on your observations and by the process of elimination, this plant could be a ________.
What major adaptation to life on land is lacking in mosses, distinguishing them as the most primitive group of plants?
NO vascular tissue
Occupation of land was advantageous to plants because there was direct access to sunlight and herbivorous organisms were not yet well established. Which disadvantages had to be overcome by all plants for terrestrial occupation?
lack of protection from desiccation
You are wading through a shallow marine area and come across a multicellular photosynthetic organism with a cellulosic cell wall, a waxy cuticle and stomata, but no vasculature. This organism should be classified as a(n) _______________.
Chloroplasts are functionally important in cells of the gametophytes of both angiosperms and gymnosperms? True or false?
Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant(existing) ferns because they have
Which of the following is a structure of angiosperm gametophytes? ovaries, pollen tubes, sepals, immature ovaries, or stamens?
In most fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy, which consequently results in heterokaryotic or ___________ cells
The multicellular condition of animals and fungi seems to have arisen by _______________
The ascomycetes get their name from which aspect of their life cycle?
Fungi have unique life cycles. A fungi that has two parental nuclei in one cell is referred to as a ___________.
__________ are thought to be the ancestral group of fungi, even though they have flagella
Common bread molds thrive in a warm, moist breadbox. They survive by producing ____________ to reproduce
a mycorrhizae can best be descrived as a _________ between fungus and a plant root
the fusion of two nuclei is called _________
th fusion of cytoplasms is called __________
What is the correct order of nuclear/cytoplasmic events during the sexual reproductive life cycle of a zygomycete? -------------- karyogomy, plasmogomy, meiosis?
plasmogomy, karyogomy, meiosis
fungi DO NOT photosynthesize anything? True or false?
What kind of a relationship do the deciduous trees share with fungi?
fungi are mostly nonmotile, so what adaptive feature allows them to be such sucessful decomposers, pathogens, and symbionts?
production of large numbers of easily dispersed spores in sexual/asexual reproduction
Why is meiosis/sexual recombination not essential for the survival of an ascomycete?
it can produce asexual conidia in the haploid state
Why does an ascus contain eight ascospores after meiosis (which usually results in the production of four)?
the four haploid ascospores undergo an ADDITIONAL ROUND OF MITOSIS! after meosis is complete(mitosis-meiosis-mitosis)!
A mushroom that you are likely to see in a forest or at the grocery store is a _________