Each state has __________ senators elected every __________ years.
__________ is the process of allotting congressional seats to each state according to its proportion of the population.
The Constitutional Convention resulted in what form of legislature?
Over the past century, partisan polarization has __________ along with __________.
increased; gender inequality
In the House of Representatives, who is second in authority to the Speaker of the House?
Members of Congress differ from the larger American population in they are disproportionately__________.
white, upper-middle-class, middle-aged, and male
A __________ is a special committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and Senate
"Pork" legislation may aid the district of a member of Congress by __________.
increasing jobs and revenue with federally funded projects
Successful members of Congress share the same policy interests as voters, according to the __________.
Congressional whips serve what main function?
serve as personal assistants to the majority and minority leaders
__________is the only formal method for ending a filibuster, and requires the approval of __________ senators.
On average, each member of the House represents __________ voters
During an election, an incumbent representative might point to local allocations of a federal highway bill as a reason to be re-elected. This is an example of __________.
What best explains the overwhelming advantage incumbents possess in seeking reelection over opposition candidates?
name recognition, access to media, and franking privilege
How might a bill become law if it has been pocket vetoed?
The bill must be reintroduced in the next session of Congress
Which statement is true of the House of Representatives?
Members are elected every two years and apportioned to states based on population.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is administered by the __________, which tracks bill status and conducts research on behalf of Congress.
Library of Congress
Why were Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton impeached but not removed from office?
A supermajority in the House led to charges of wrongdoing, but a Senate trial failed to impeach.
Why are there currently 435 members in the House of Representatives
The number is fixed at this limit by a statute.
What occurs during the appropriations process?
Congress acquires requested oversight material from the executive
A rise in party unity is indicative of __________.
The __________ is where congressional Democrats gather to select their leadership at the beginning of each term
__________ committees exist in both the House and Senate, may be temporary or permanent, and usually have a focused responsibility.
How have Americans rated members of Congress in recent years?
Ratings are low across the board, but individual members of Congress receive the lowest approval ratings.
The true leader of the Senate is the __________, elected by the majority party.
What advantage does a subcommittee offer the legislative process?
The president pro tempore __________.
is an honorific office awarded to the senior senator of the majority party
What demonstrates the Founders' desire to insulate the Senate from popular displeasure?
The role of Senate minority leader is important because __________.
he or she serves as chief assistant to the majority leader
In the House of Representatives, the __________ decides who will speak on the floor, and rules on points of order
According to the trustee model of representation, legislators are __________.
What is the purpose of a discharge petition?
to force a vote on a House bill within an opposing committee
Which statement best characterizes the hearing process of a formal bill?
Few formal bills receive a hearing, but many are marked up and sent to the floor.
A committee report is written __________.
Which of the following groups would be most likely to have influence over non-ideological legislation?
What procedure or process limits debate of budget controversies to twenty hours, thereby ending the threat of a filibuster in the Senate?
Which is an example of logrolling in Congress?
supporting a bill in exchange for support of one's own bill
What is the typical trajectory of a bill in the House of Representatives?
introduction, committee referral, subcommittee, full committee report, rules committee, full House vote, conference committee, send to president
__________ is a good example of Congressional casework
Assistance to a constituent in obtaining a Social Security check
In which event was there congressional oversight?
What is the typical trajectory of a bill in the Senate?
introduction, committee referral, subcommittee, full committee report, full Senate debate and vote, conference committee, send to president
Packing and cracking both draw district lines to the favor of the majority party, and thus, are two types of __________.
A __________ is one tactic to signal the leadership that a Senate member may have objections to a bill.
The House minority leader __________.
is elected by the minority party
Charged with the responsibility to __________, the __________ is almost certainly the most powerful committee in either chamber of Congress.
This individual keeps close contact with all members of his or her party, counts votes for key legislation, prepares summaries of bills, and acts as a communications link within the party
Which statement about incumbency is most accurate?
Incumbents have a huge advantage in reelection
What best describes the purpose of the Government Accountability Office (GAO), established in 1921 as an independent agency?
auditing the financial expenditures of the executive branch and federal agencies
In the event of a major scandal, which kind of committee would be convened to conduct a special investigation?
a select/special committee
Which example best demonstrates a legislator acting as a trustee of his or her constituency?
A legislator follows the public opinion of his or her constituency
A lobbyist for the NRA would be most effective when targeting a legislator ___________.
whose voting behavior supports gun control
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between Congress and the Judiciary?
What occurs at a congressional party conference?
One example of the Framers' intent to insulate the Senate from the tyranny of the majority was to __________.
Executive deference to senators in the appointment of judges to federal courts is __________.
How are committee chairs selected in the House?
interviews to determine party loyalty
What can be inferred from the current demographic composition of the Senate?
Which response best reflects the dilemma of pork in legislation?
Programmatic requests are typically beneficial to districts but allow the federal government to collect an undue share of tax revenue.
What best represents the trend of party polarization over the last three decades?
Party polarization has increased as bipartisanship has decreased
Although Congress authorized the expenditure of funds for many social problems, President Nixon refused to spend money appropriated for them. Frustrated by Nixon, Congress solidified its role in the budgetary process by __________.