Where does multiple myeloma generally show quicker at?
What are the three cardinal rules of radiation protection
How many bones make up the cranium?
right and left parietal
right and left temporal
How many bones make up the facial bones?
What is the maximum degree of incline for a portable?
What baseline does the panorex use?
IOML parallel to the floor
Axiolateral Oblique: Mandible
true lateral - ramus
30° - body
45° - mentum
10° - 15° - general survey
What age does the anterior fontanel generally close?
18 months of age
What are the joints of the cranium classified as?
At about what age do the cranial sutures completely close?
12 - 13 years of age
At what age are all of the sinuses completely developed?
Which sinus is located immediately below the sella turcica?
inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid
bone fragment pushed into the cranial cavity
fracture caused by a blow to the cheek, free floating zygoma bone
fracture to one side of a structure caused by an impact to the opposite side
Basal Skull Fracture
fracture visualized in dense inner structures of temporal bone
suppurative process in the space between the inner surface of the dura and outer surface of the arachnoid
Osteomyelitis of Skull
direct extension of a suppurative process from the sinuses or mastoid air cells
results from chronic infection of the middle ear and sinuses
fracture to one side of a structure caused by an impact to opposite side
viral inflammation of the brain and meninges
A radiograph of a lateral projection of the facial bones reveals that the mandibular rami are not superimposed. What positioning error led to this radiographic outcome?
rotation of the head
SMV of the sinuses best shows what?
inferosuperior view of sphenoid and ethmoid sinus
A radiograph of a Waters projection reveals that the petrous ridges are projected within the maxillary sinuses. Is this an acceptable image?
No the petrous ridges should be projected just below the maxillary sinuses
A lateral of the sinuses best shows what?
all four paranasal sinuses are demonstrated
A Parietoacanthial (Waters) projection of the sinuses best shows what?
best view of maxillary sinuses
A PA Caldwell of the sinuses best shows what?
best view of the frontal and ethmoid sinuses
A PA transoral of the sinuses best shows what?
sphenoid sinus in the oral cavity
Which sinuses are projected through the oral cavity with the PA axial transoral projection?
Which paranasal sinuses are demonstrated with an SMV projection of the paranasal sinuses?
sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary sinuses
What is the largest immovable bone of the face?
Which soft tissue landmark is found at the base of the anterior nasal spine?
Which two cranial bones articulate with the maxilla?
frontal and ethmoid
Which facial bone is associated with the tear ducts?
From anterior to posterior, the cone-shaped orbits project upward at an angle of _____ and toward the midsagittal plane at an angle of ______.
30° and 37°
Which one of the facial bone openings is formed by a cleft between the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone?
superior orbital fissure
What is the older term of the maxillary sinuses?
antrum of highmore
Specifically, where are the frontal sinuses located?
posterior to the glabella
The frontal sinuses rarely become aerated before the age of ________.
Which specific aspect of the ethmoid bone contains the ethmoid sinuses?
What is the name of the fracture that results from a direct blow to the orbit leading to a disruption of the inferior orbital margin?
blow out fracture
A "free-floating" zygomatic bone is the frequent result of a _________ fracture.
Where is the CR centered for a lateral position for facial bones?
What CR angle must be used to project the petrous ridges just below the orbital floor with the PA axial (Caldwell) projection?
Which structures specifically are visualized better on the modified Waters as compared with the basic Waters?
orbital rims and orbital floors
Where does the CR exit for a Waters of the facial bones?
Where does the CR exit for a 15° PA axial (Caldwell) for facial bones?
Which projection for the mandible results in a thyroid dose that is four or five times greater than the thyroid dose for any other projection?
Which projection of the mandible will project the opposite half of the mandible away from the side of interest?
Where should the CR exit for a PA axial projection of the mandible?
Which skull positioning line is placed perpendicular to the IR for a PA or PA axial projection of the mandible?
Which aspect of the mandible is best visualized with an AP axial projection?
What CR angle is required for the AP axial projection of the mandible if the OML is placed perpendicular to the IR?
Where is the CR centered for an AP axial projection of the mandible?
Which projection of the mandible will demonstrate the entire mandible, including the coronoid and condyloid processes?
Which imaging system provides a single, frontal perspective of the entire mandible?
Which projection of the TMJ requires that the skull be kept in a true lateral position?
Which single projection for a paranasal sinus routine provides an image of all four sinus groups?
Which paranasal sinuses are best demonstrated with a PA Caldwell?
frontal and anterior ethmoid
Which group of paranasal sinuses is best demonstrated with a Waters projection?
Which positioning line is placed perpendicular to the IR for a Waters projection?
Where are the petrous ridges located on a well-positioned Waters projection?
just below the maxillary sinuses
A radiograph of a Waters projection reveals that the distance between the lateral margins of the orbits and the lateral aspect of the skull is not equal. What type of positioning error led to this radiographic outcome?
rotation of the head
A radiograph of a 30° PA axial projection of the facial bones reveals that the petrous ridges are projected at the level of the inferior orbital margins. Is this an acceptable image for this projection?
yes this image meets the evaluation criteria for a 30° PA axial projection
A lateral radiograph of the facial bones demonstrates that the bodies of the mandible are not superimposed; one is about 1 cm superior to the other. How would this be corrected on a repeat exposure?
The majority of the hard palate is formed by
Where are the petrous ridges projected for a properly positioned modified Waters projection?
lower half of maxillary sinuses
Which positioning line is placed perpendicular to the IR for a modified Waters projection?