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leronefong
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107708
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Practice questions for exam 2
Updated:
2011-10-10 02:16:16
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Patho Exam practice
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Pathophysiology
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Practice questions for exam 2

  1. All of the following are likely to cause respiratory alkalosis EXCEPT:
    A. a drug overdose that causes respiratory depression
    B. a severe anxiety state
    C. a severe pain
    D. hyperventilation
    A. a drug overdose that causes respiratory depression
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Interpret the following set of arterial blood gases (ABGs) in terms whether it indicates acidosis, alkalosis, with a metabolic or respiratory cause, and whether they are uncompensate, partially compensated, or fully compensated.

    pH = 7.14
    PCO2 = 78 mm Hg
    HCO3 = 24 mEq/L
    BE = +2 mEq/L

    A. Fully compensated respiratory acidosis
    B. uncompensated respiratory acidosis
    C. partially compensated respiratory acidosis
    D. uncompensated metabolic acidosis
    B. uncompensated respiratory acidosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Interpret the following set of ABGs in terms whether it indicates acidosis, alkalosis, with a metabolic or respiratory cause, and whether they are uncompensated, partially compensated, or fully compensated.

    pH = 7.35
    pCO2 = 60 mm Hg
    HCO3 = 34 mEq/L
    BE = + 7 mEq/L

    A. uncompensated metabolic alkalosis
    B. partially compensated respiratory acidosis
    C. fully compensated respiratory acidosis
    D. fully compensated metabolic acidosis
    C. fully compensated respiratory acidosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following cause an elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis?

    a. elevated serum chloride
    b. lactic acidosis
    c. loss of bicarbonate ions caused by diarrhea
    d. vomiting of gastric fluid
    b. lactic acidosis
  5. Interpret the following set of ABGs in terms whether it indicates acidosis, alkalosis, with a metabolic or respiratory cause, and whether they are uncompensated, partially compensated, or fully compensated.

    pH = 7.10
    pCO2 = 26 mm Hg
    HCO3 = 12 mEq/L
    BE = -8 mEq/L

    A. uncompensated metabolic acidosis
    B. uncompensated respiratory acidosis
    C. partially compensated respiratory acidosis
    D. partially compensated metabolic acidosis
    D. partially compensated metabolic acidosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. A positive base excess value, such + 18 mEq/L, is most likely to be present in a patient who has:

    A. uncompensated metabolic acidosis.
    B. renal compensation for respiratory acidosis.
    C. renal compensation for respiratory alkalosis.
    D. uncompensated respiratory acidosis.
    B. renal compensation for respiratory acidosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. During alkalosis:

    A. fewer hydrogen ions bind to plasma proteins and more calcium ions bind to plasma proteins resulting in an decreased level of free, ionized calcium.
    B. there is no change in the plasma level of free, ionized calcium.
    C. more hydrogen ions bind to plasma proteins and fewer calcium ions bind to plasma proteins resulting in an increased level of free, ionized calcium.
    D. there is decreased neuromuscular excitability.
    A. fewer hydrogen ions bind to plasma proteins and more calcium ions bind to plasma proteins resulting in an decreased level of free, ionized calcium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Anaphylactoid reactions differ from anaphylactic reactions because anaphylactoid reactions:

    A. cause bronchoconstriction but not hypotension.
    B. do not require a sensitization period.
    C. never result in death.
    D. do not involve the release of histamine from mast cells.
    B. do not require a sensitization period
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Type III hypersensitivity reactions:

    a. are involved in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus.
    b. involve formation of immune complexes (complexes of antigens and antibodies).
    c. involve activation of complement proteins.
    d. all of the above.
    d. all of the above
  10. The most common clinical findings at the time that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is
    diagnosed are:

    A. an opportunistic infection and leukopenia.
    B. multiple organ failure and leukocytosis.
    C. decreased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fever.
    D. a photosensitive rash and arthritis or arthralgia.
    D. a photosensitive rash and arthritis or arthralgia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following statements about the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus
    (HIV) is FALSE?

    A. HIV is a DNA virus and must convert its DNA to human RNA in order to replicate.
    B. HIV attaches to and infects human cells that contain the CD4 receptor.
    C. HIV infects helper T cells, macrophages, glial cells, and dendritic cells.
    D. The reverse transcriptase enzyme of HIV is necessary for HIV to replicate.
    A. HIV is a DNA virus and must convert its DNA to RNA in order to replicate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The ELISA and western blot tests for HIV infection:

    A. detect antibodies produced against HIV.
    B. detect the GP120 produced by HIV.
    C. are more accurate for detecting the presence of HIV than the PCR test.
    D. detect the CD4 receptor for HIV.
    A. detect antibodies produced against HIV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. The presence of which of the following is an indication that an adult with HIV infection has
    progressed to having AIDS?

    A. P. jiroveci pneumonia (formerly called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia)
    B. Serum CD4 T cell count of 600/mm3
    C. the flu
    d. all of the above
    A. P. jiroveci pneumonia (formerly called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. When a newborn has a primary immunodeficiency disorder affecting the humoral immune
    system, they will:

    A. always have serious infections that develop immediately after birth.
    B. have a defect in B lymphocyte production of one or more types of immunoglobulins.
    C. have defective T lymphocytes.
    c. have no macrophages.
    B. have a defect in B lymphocyte production of one or more types of immunoglobulins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. All of the following are consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis EXCEPT:

    A. acetone odor to the breath
    B. pH = 7.1
    C. plasma glucose = 800 mg/dl
    D. normal serum osmolality
    D. normal serum osmolality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Appropriate immediate treatment for an unconscious person with serious hypoglycemia
    resulting from an overdose of insulin is administration of:

    A. an injection of glucagon.
    B. a slowly absorbed protein, such as that found in red meat.
    C. orange juice.
    D. an injection of a drug that blocks beta receptors.
    A. an injection of glucagon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. A hemoglobin A1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) level of 6% in a diabetic individual:

    A. is the highest level that glycosylated hemoglobin can reach.
    B. indicates good glycemic control over the past 2 months.
    C. indicates poor glycemic control over the past 2 months.
    D. indicates that hyperglycemia occurred approximately 6 months ago.
    B. indicates good glycemia control over the past 2 months
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the following is a volatile acid produced in the body?


    A. pyruvic acid
    B. lactic acid
    C. carbonic acid
    D. acetone
    C. carbonic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)