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tville01
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131972
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Chapter 16, Lymphatic System
Updated:
2012-02-03 12:39:51
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Chapter 16 Lymphatic System
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Chapter 16, Lymphatic System
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  1. What are the 3 functions of the lymphatic system?
    • Collects and transports interstital fluid to the blood
    • Helps defend against pathogens
    • Absorbs lipids from small intestine and transports them to venous system
  2. Lacteals are lymphatic ________ in _________villi, transport absorbed fats from digestive track
    capillarie:small intestine
  3. How do lymphatic pathways begin?
    Lymphatic Capillaries
  4. Lymphatic Capillaries are ______ that extend to ________ and runs parellel to _______ capilleries
    • Microscopic dead-end capillaries
    • intersitial spaces
    • blood
  5. How are lymph and blood capilleries similar?
    both are composed of endothelium(simple squamos epithelium)
  6. How is a lymph capillary different from a blood capillary?
    • no arterial ends
    • larger, irregular lumens
    • more permable
  7. In what tissue will lymphatic capillaries be absent?
    • CNS
    • Avascular Tissue(Epidermis & Cartilage)
  8. Lymphatic Vessels
    Formed by the merging of lymphatic capillaries, similar to veins
  9. How are Veins and lymphatic vessels similar?
    • Large lumens
    • similar walls(lymphatic vessels=thinner walls)
    • valves(more than veins)
  10. Lymph nodes are organs that consist of _______ tissue surronded by a ________ containing ________ and macrophages.
    • lymphatic
    • CT capsule
    • lymphocytes
  11. Where does lymph get filtered?
    Lymph node
  12. How are lymphatic trunks named?
    by the region they serve
  13. What merges to form lymphatic trunks?
    Lymph vessels(after they have passed lymph nodes)
  14. What are the 2 collecting ducts in the thorax?
    • Thoracic
    • Right lymphatic
  15. Where does the thoracic duct empty? What is present at the junction?
    • left subclavian vein (at the junction of left subclavian and internal jugular veins)
    • valve
  16. Where does the thoracic duct drain lymph from?
    the whole body(excpet URQ)
  17. Where does the thoracic duct begin?
    abdomen through diaphragm, next to aorta
  18. Where does the right lymphatic duct originate?
    Right thorax
  19. Where does the right lymphatic duct empty?
    right subclavian, near right internal jugular junction
  20. Where does the right lymphatic duct drain lymph from?
    URQ
  21. What is Lymph?
    fluid that has entered lymphatic capillary
  22. What happens to lymph that has left the collecting ducts?
    enters venous system and becomes part of plasma(before entering right atrium)
  23. Where does tissue fluid originate?
    blood plasma
  24. How does lymph form?
    • Plasma filtration exceeds reabsorption, forms tissue fluid
    • hydrostatic pressure from interstitial spaces forces tissue fliud into lymph capillaries
  25. How does the overlapping of the epithelial cells effect function?
    acts as a one way valve, allowing fluids(Debris, proteins, viruses,bacteria) to enter but not exit
  26. How does lymph move in the lymphatic vessels?
    • Skeletal muscle contraction
    • smooth muscle contraction
    • breathing muscles
  27. Any condition that interfers with lymph flow results in_____
    Edema
  28. Largest lymphatic organ, 5 inches long
    spleen
  29. What is the Hilum? What occurs at the Hilum?
    • Indented region of lymph node and spleen
    • blood vessels and nerves communicate with the structures at this location
  30. Where do efferent lymphatic vessels leave the node
    at the Hilum
  31. Where do afferent lymphatic vessels enter the lymph node?
    Several locations on the Convex Surface
  32. Which of the following contain lymph fluid?
    A)pulmonary capillaries
    B)systemic capillaries
    C)interstitial fluid
    D)lacteals
    D)lacteals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Inflammation of a lymph node is called _____.
    A)tonsillitis
    B)lymphangitis
    C)lymphedema
    D)lymphadenitis
    D)lymphadenitis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following lymphatic areas are totally encapsulated with fibrous tissue?
    A)Peyer's patches
    B)palatine tonsil
    C)pharyngeal tonsil
    D)cervical node
    D)cervical node
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Cell-mediated immunity is mainly a function of _____.
    A)T cells
    B)B cells
    C)neutrophils
    D)macrophages
    A)T cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. The cross reaction that occurs between incompatible blood types is caused by _____ antibodies.
    A)M
    B)G
    C)E
    D)A
    A)M
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. The right lymphatic and thoracic ducts drain about an equal area of the body
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  38. Bacteria cannot enter the blood from a wound in the skin as long as no bleeding is evidenced.
    A)True
    B)False
    B)False
  39. Cytotoxic T cells destroy their target cells by releasing a substance that affects ________
    cell membranes.
  40. Immunity provides protection against all types of pathogens and has no "memory."
    Non-specific
  41. The skin and mucous membranes can be considered as a ____________ part of innate immunity.
    mechanical barriers
  42. Lymphatic vessels are similar to veins in that they contain _________, but unlike blood vessels in that they lack __________.
    • valves
    • tunicas
  43. If lymphatic tissue is removed from an axillary region, the arm on that side is likely to
    become edematous.
  44. large phagocytic, pathogen-destroying cells in body tissues
    macrophages
  45. Blood is filtered and cleansed, and erythrocytes are stored in the
    spleen
  46. The first step in a B-cell's defense against a microorganism is to
    recognize the antigen
  47. What triggers the process of clonal selection in a T cell or B cell?
    binding to its antigen
  48. What type of immunity results when a person receives a vaccine that triggers a primary immune
    response and leaves memory T and B lymphocytes to initiate an attack if
    the pathogen re-enters the body.
    Artificially acquired active immunity
  49. The antibody primarily active in allergic responses and the activation of basophils is
    IgE
  50. Its progeny are plasma cells
    B cells
  51. Materials moving between body cells and blood capillaries pass through the _________, which surrounds all tissue cells
    interstitial fluids
  52. The enzyme found in tears, saliva, and nasal secretions that acts to destroy bacteria is __________.
    a lysozyme
  53. The antibody that acts as a receptor on the surface of B cell is
    IgD
  54. An activated _______ rapidly divides to form a clone of plasma cells, which produce antibodies and memory cells.
    B lymphocyte
  55. Lymph is filtered and cleansed by the ________ before it is returned to the blood stream.
    lymph nodes
  56. An immune response begins when a ________ is activated by binding to
    both a foreign antigen and a self antigen on an antigen presenting
    cell's plasma membrane.
    helper T cells
  57. Shape and size of lymph nodes?
    • lima-bean
    • 1mm-25mm
  58. Capsule of white CT provides ______ for lymph node.
    support
  59. Lymphatic pathway
    Lymph capillary, Afferent Lymph vessel, Lymph node, Efferent lymph vessel, Lymph trunk, Collecting duct, subclavian vein
  60. What is the Cortex? What cells are located there?
    the outer portion of the lymph node, contains nodules, lymphocytes, and B cells
  61. What is the Medulla? What cells are located there?
    the inner portion of a lymph node, contains macrophages and T cells
  62. What are Lymph sinuses?
    space between lymph nodule and capsule
  63. Where are 99% of antigens and debris removed from lymph by macrophages, and lymphocytes added to lymph
    flowing through the lymph sinuses
  64. What is the functional unit of a lymph node?
    Lymph nodules
  65. Regions of Lymph nodes
    cervical, axillary, Inguinal
  66. Cavaties with lymph nodes
    Pelvic, abdominal, thoracic
  67. What are the 2 primary functions of lymph nodes?
    • filter lymph and provide immune sureveillance
    • production center for lymphocytes
  68. Swollen lymph nodes are _____
    lymphadenitis
  69. Partially encapsulated lymph nodules, back of mouth or throat
    Tonsils
  70. Large aggregates of lymph nodules in the Ileum of small intestine
    Peyer's Patch
  71. Soft bilobed lymphatic structure located in the superior mediastinum
    thymus
  72. Thymus tends to _____ in size after puberty
    Decrease
  73. In the elderly, ______ and _____ often replace the thymus.
    Adipose and CT
  74. Thymosins are produced by
    Epithelial cells in the thymus
  75. What is the function of thymosin?
    stimulates T cell maturation
  76. Lobules of the thymus
    • Cortex(outer darker region)
    • Medulla(inner lighter region)
  77. What cells does the cortex contain?
    • lymphocytes that developed from progenitor cells in the red bone marrow(will develop into T cells)
    • macrophages
    • Thymocytes
  78. Thymocytes are
    inactivated cells
  79. 3 types of T cells
    • T hepler(TH)
    • T cytotoxic(TC) aka killer T cells
    • Suppressor T(TS) aka T-regulator
  80. Where is the TCR located and what does it bind to?
    Cell membrane of T cells, binds to specific antigens
  81. How are different T cells identified?
    By CD(clusters of differentiation) glycoproteins that are added during T cell maturation
  82. What is the primary CD receptor for TH cells?
    CD4
  83. TC primary CD receptor?
    CD8
  84. TS primary recptor CD's?
    CD4 & CD25
  85. What 3 locations do Developing T cells enter when leaving thymus?
    • Medullary blood vessels
    • Efferent lymphatic vessels
    • other lymphatic tissue to provide immunity
  86. Where is the spleen located? What protects it?
    • superior left of abdominal cavity, behind stomach under diaphragm
    • protected by 9th, 10th, and 11th ribs
  87. Where can Hilum be found?
    On spleen and lymph nodes
  88. Spleen structure VS Lymph node structure:
    Both encapsulated by?
    What do they filter?
    • CT
    • Node filters lymph, spleen filters blood
  89. Lymphatic organ that is red because it holds a great deal of blood?
    spleen
  90. White pulp is composed of _____ and contains _______
    • Splenic nodules
    • lymphocytes
  91. Network of reticular fibers surrounding venous sinuses in the spleen
    Red pulp
  92. What activates lymphocytes?
    coming in contact with pathogens in the blood that is flowing in the spleen
  93. What takes over for the spleen after a splenectomy?
    Red Bone Marrow & Liver
  94. Invasion and mulitiplication of a pathogen
    infection
  95. Ability to recognize and defend against pathogens
    Immunity
  96. 2 types of immunity
    • Innate(nonspecific)
    • Adaptive(specific)
  97. Examples of edema
    • Hodgkins
    • mastectomy
  98. Innate Immunity defenses(7)
    • Species resistance
    • Mechanical barriers
    • Chemical barriers
    • Natural killer cells
    • Inflammation
    • Phagocytosis
    • Fever
  99. General defense mechanism with no "memory"
    Innate(nonspecific)
  100. Defense mechanism directed against a specific pathogen
    Adaptive(specific)
  101. What is the first line of defense in innate immunity?
    mechanical barriers
  102. What provides resistance against acids, alkalis, and bacterial enzymes?
    Keratin
  103. Stimulates phaygocytosis
    Interferons
  104. How do interferons block viral replication?
    by blocking nucleic synthesis
  105. Macrophages and lymphocytes release _______ to induce a fever.
    endogenous pyrogens
  106. What regulates body temp?
    Hypothalamus
  107. How does a fever help in innate imunity?
    • liver and spleen decrease iorn
    • inhibits growth and reproduction of bacteria and fungi
    • phagocytes attacks increase as temp rises
  108. Keeps pathogens localized
    inflammation
  109. Cardinal signs of inflammation
    • redness
    • edema
    • heat
    • pain
    • function impairment
  110. Pus forms during ______ invasion.
    bacterial
  111. During inflammation phaygocytosis what are the first cells to appear?
    Neutrophils
  112. Type of immunity where "memory" is involved?
    Adaptive(specific)
  113. The major function(s) of a lymph node is/are
    A.production of lymphocytes.
    B.filtration of foreign particles.
    C.filtration of cellular debris.
    D.all of the above
    D.all of the above
  114. During bacterial infections, the accumulation of dead cells, immune cells, and chemical mediators that form a thick whitish fluid is called
    pus
  115. Only lymphocytes possessing ________ that can bind with the ________ on an invading pathogen are involved in the immune response against it.
    receptors; antigens
  116. T cells attach themselves directly to antigens and destroy them.
    cell-mediated immunity
  117. Lymphocytes originate in _________ and, after maturation, move into _________ where they divide to produce large populations.
    red bone marrow; lymphatic organs
  118. A group of plasma proteins that amplifies the immune response by causing lysis of cellular pathogens; normally inactive until stimulated by an antigen-antibody complex.
    complement
  119. The immunity that one receives from their mother both pre-natal and post-natal is referred to as
    passive natural
  120. If lymphatic tissue is removed from an axillary region, the arm on that side is likely to
    become edematous
  121. B cells that respond to the same antigen and are derived from a single cell are referred to as
    clones
  122. The most active phagocytic cells found in circulating blood are
    neutrophils and monocytes
  123. Where are lymph nodes found?
    Groups or chains along lymphatic vessels
  124. Which cells are reponsible for humoral immune response?
    B cells
  125. Interferons block _______ and stimulate ______ and ______
    • viral replication
    • macrophages
    • B cells
  126. Interleukins control
    Lymphocyte differentiation and growth
  127. Lymphocytes originate in _________ and, after maturation, move into _________ where they divide to produce large populations.
    red bone marrow; lymphatic organs
  128. The antibody that acts as a receptor on the surface of B cell is
    IgD.
  129. A group of plasma proteins that amplifies the immune response by causing lysis of cellular pathogens;normally inactive until stimulated by an antigen-antibody complex.
    Complement
  130. What are Haptens?
    Incomplete Antigens that combine with carrier molecule
  131. Protein produced by body in response to non-self antigen
    antibody
  132. Which Immunogobulins are found in plasma and activate the complement?
    • IgG
    • IgM
  133. Which Immunogobulins are found in endocrine secreations?
    • IgE
    • IgA
  134. Which Immunogobulins is found on B cells?
    IgD
  135. Which Immunogobulins can cross placenta and are the smallest and most abundant?
    IgG
  136. Which Immunogobulins are the first to be secreated in an inital immune response and produced in blood transfusion?
    IgM
  137. Which Immunogobulins prevent the attachment of pathogen to epithelial surfaces?
    IgA( found in tears, saliva, breast milk)
  138. Which Immunogobulins are associated with allergic reactions?
    IgE
  139. Which Immunogobulins are involved in activating B cells?
    IgD
  140. Antibidy direct attacks include
    • Agglutination( clumping of antigens)
    • Precipitation(Antigens form insoluable substance)
    • Neutralization(antigen-antibody complex, virus can't bind to receptor saites to harm cells)
  141. Coating of complement proteins and antibodies to attract phagocytes
    Opsonization
  142. Activated complement proteins attract macrophages and neutrophils into region
    Chemotaxis
  143. Complement proteins are _____ specific
    not antigen
  144. Antibodies are ______ specific
    pathogen
  145. Lymphocytes develop in
    red bone marrow
  146. Which T cell secreates Cytokins?
    TH

    • T Suppresor
  147. Which T cell secreates Perfornin?
    TC
  148. What does perfornin do to cells?
    pore opening in membrane, lysis occurs
  149. Chemical substances that act as messanger to enhance cellular response to antigens.
    ie; Interleukin-2
    Cytokins
  150. What T cell will stop immune response once antigen is destroyed?
    TS
  151. Humoral Immunity requires ______ formation
    antibody
  152. What cell is an antibody factory?
    plasma cell
  153. The _____ vessel drains the arm.
    A)bronchomediastinal
    B)intercostal trunk
    C)jugular trunk
    D)subclavian trunk
    D)subclavian trunk
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  154. The lymphatic ducts will empty directly into the _____.
    A)subclavian veins
    B)heart
    C)brachiocephalic veins
    D)thoracic veins
    A)subclavian veins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  155. What is one major force that causes interstitial fluid to enter lymphatic capillaries?
    A)blood hydrostatic pressure
    B)blood osmotic pressure
    C)tissue hydrostatic pressure
    D)tissue osmotic pressure
    C)tissue hydrostatic pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  156. The white pulp of the spleen functions to _____.
    A)remove foreign particles
    B)produce lymphocytes
    C)phagocytize bacteria
    D)store blood
    B)produce lymphocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  157. A nonspecific class of chemicals that can inhibit viruses and cancer cell growth is _____.
    A)peptides
    B)antibodies
    C)antigens
    D)interferon
    D)interferon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. Which of the following is NOT an enzyme capable of destroying foreign bacteria?
    A)fibrin
    B)pepsin
    C)lipase
    D)lysozyme
    A)fibrin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  159. Which is the most common immunoglobulin for allergies?
    A)IgE
    B)IgA
    C)IgG
    D)IgD
    A)IgE
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  160. Which of the following processes can be initiated by any type of antibody fixation?
    A)neutralization
    B)complement
    C)antibodies
    D)lysis phenomena
    B)complement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  161. The process which increases the chance of a neutrophil or monocyte engulfing an invader is _____.
    A)neutralization
    B)phagocytosis
    C)opsonization
    D)complement fixation
    C)opsonization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  162. The increase in antibody levels in a second antigen exposure is due to the _____.
    A)T cells
    B)memory B cell
    C)B clones
    D)helper T cells
    B)memory B cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  163. Which of these is NOT a function of lymph nodes?
    A)filter lymph
    B)house lymphocytes and macrophages
    C)produce lymphocytes
    D)produce red blood cells
    D)produce red blood cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  164. Where are B lymphocytes believed to mature in adult humans?
    A)bone marrow
    B)Bursa of Fabricus
    C)liver
    D)compact bone
    A)bone marrow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  165. The red pulp of the spleen functions to _____.
    A)produce lymphocytes
    B)produce erythrocytes
    C)produce B-cells
    D)phagocytize senescent cells
    D)phagocytize senescent cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  166. Which inflammatory response provides the greatest protection from the spread of pathogens?
    A)increase in leukocytes
    B)antibody production
    C)redness and edema
    D)fibroblast activity
    D)fibroblast activity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. What is the main inflammatory blood cell?
    A)neutrophil
    B)monocyte
    C)eosinophil
    D)lymphocyte
    A)neutrophil
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  168. Which of the following is a specific immune defense?
    A)interferon
    B)antibody
    C)all of these
    D)phagocytosis
    B)antibody
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  169. Where is the greatest number of B cells found?
    A)circulating blood
    B)lymph node
    C)lymph vessel
    D)bone marrow
    B)lymph node
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. Which of the following could NOT be antigenic by themselves?
    A)polysaccharides
    B)protein
    C)glycolipids
    D)haptens
    D)haptens
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  171. Which of the following activates the cytotoxic T cells?
    A)interleukin-1
    B)interferon
    C)interleukin-4
    D)interleukin-2
    D)interleukin-2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  172. Which factor activates phagocytosis by monocytes?
    A)gamma-interferon
    B)cytokine
    C)lymphokine
    D)interleukin-4
    A)gamma-interferon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  173. T cells may produce _____, which is lethal to the target cells invaded by a pathogen.
    A)perforin
    B)interleukin-2
    C)interleukin-3
    D)interferon
    A)perforin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  174. Humoral immunity is mediated by the _____.
    A)T cells
    B)monocytes
    C)neutrophils
    D)B cells
    D)B cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  175. The specific source of antibodies is the _____.
    A)T cell
    B)B cell
    C)plasma cell
    D)macrophage
    C)plasma cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  176. A gammaglobinemia will seriously impair which ability?
    A)T cell functions
    B)CMI
    C)phagocytosis
    D)antibody production
    D)antibody production
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  177. The heavy chains of an immunoglobulin differ by having _____.
    A)more amino acids
    B)fewer lipids
    C)more sulfur atoms
    D)more antigen sites
    A)more amino acids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  178. Most of the circulating antibodies are derived from _____ class immunoglobulin.
    A)E
    B)A
    C)D
    D)G
    D)G
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  179. Artificially acquired passive immunity could be the result of _____ injection.
    A)toxoid
    B)antigen
    C)cortisone
    D)gamma globulin
    D)gamma globulin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  180. Naturally acquired passive immunity results from _____.
    A)immunization
    B)a bee sting
    C)placental transfer
    D)a flu shot
    C)placental transfer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  181. AIDS is caused by viruses that specifically invade _____.
    A)B cells
    B)the liver
    C)neutrophils
    D)T cells
    D)T cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  182. What traits characterize antigens?
    A)Antigens come only from foreign microorganisms.
    B)Antigens may be proteins, polysaccharides, glycolipids, or glycoproteins that stimulate an immune response.
    C)Antigens are proteins that stimulate an immune response.
    D)Antigens are immunoglobulins the body produces in response to exposure to foreign organisms.
    B)Antigens may be proteins, polysaccharides, glycolipids, or glycoproteins that stimulate an immune response.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  183. How are B cells activated?
    A)B cell is activated when it encounters an antigen that matches its B cell receptors and receives cytokines from helper T cells.
    B)B cells are activated when they encounter their twin T cell component.
    C)B cells are activated when red blood cells release cytokines
    .D)B cells are activated when their matching antibodies attach to their surfaces and macrophages release cytokines.
    • A)B cell is activated when it encounters an antigen that matches its B
    • cell receptors and receives cytokines from helper T cells.
  184. Which type of immunoglobulin molecule is passed on to nursing infants in breast milk?
    A)IgM
    B)IgG
    C)IgE
    D)IgA
    D)IgA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  185. Which is NOT a property of the red pulp within the spleen?
    A)has erythrocytes
    B)produces lymphocytes
    C)produces erythrocytes
    D)has macrophages
    B)produces lymphocytes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  186. The antibodies involved in allergic reactions
    A.are secreted by mast cells.
    B.are called allergens.
    C.belong to the immunoglobulin E group.
    D.all of the above
    C.belong to the immunoglobulin E group.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  187. The antibody that acts as a receptor on the surface of B cell is
    IgD.
  188. Interferon is a group of hormonelike peptides produced by cells in response to the presence of
    viruses