Author:
dmk5154
ID:
132308
Filename:
BIOL141-C.7 Nervous System.txt
Updated:
2012-02-01 21:45:51
Tags:
BIOL141
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Description:
physiology of the nervous system
Show Answers:

  1. __________ cells aid the functions of neurons and are about five times more abundant than neurons.
    supporting cells
  2. In the CNS, supporting cells are collectively called _____________
    glial cells OR neuroglia
  3. A multipolar neuron located entirely within the CNS. It integrates functions of the Nervous System.
    Association neuron (interneuron)
  4. A neuron that transmits impulses from a sensory receptor into the CNS
    Sensory (afferent) neuron
  5. A neuron that transmits impulses from the CNS to an effector organ (i.e. a muscle).
    Motor (efferent) neuron
  6. Consists of brain and spinal cord
    CNS
  7. Nerves, ganglia, and nerve plexuses (outside CNS)
    PNS
  8. Cablelike collection of many axons in the PNS; may be "mixed" (contain sensory and motor neurons).
    Nerve
  9. Nerve hat stimulates contractions of skeletal muscles
    Somatic motor nerve
  10. Nerve that stimulates (OR inhibits) contractions of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle and stimulates glandular secretion
    Autonomic motor nerve
  11. Grouping of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS
    ganglion
  12. grouping of neuron cell bodies within the CNS
    Nucleus
  13. Grouping of axons that interconnect regions of the CNS
    Tract
  14. ______________ is energy-dependent and is often divided into a fast component and two slow components.
    axonal transport
  15. transport from the cell body to the axon and dendrites. This is called ________ (uses kinesin protein).
    anterograde transport
  16. transport along the axon and dendrites toward the cell body is known as __________ (uses dynein protein).
    retrograde transport
  17. 2 types of motor neurons:
    • somatic
    • autonomic
  18. these neurons innervate involuntary effectors
    autonomic motor neurons
  19. neuron responsible for both reflex and voluntary control of skeletal muscles
    somatic motor neuron
  20. _____ have two processes, one at either end; this type is found in the retina of the eye
    Bipolar neurons
  21. the most common type of neuron. have several dendrites and one axon. (i.e. motor neurons)
    multipolar neuron
  22. _________ (also called neurolemmocytes), form myelin sheaths around PNS axons
    Schwann cells
  23. ____________ (or ganglionic gliocytes) support neuron cell bodies within the ganglia of the PNS
    satellite cells
  24. form myelin sheaths around axons of the CNS
    oligodendrocytes
  25. ___________ migrate through the CNS and phagocytose foreign and degenerated material
    microglia
  26. ___________ help to regulate the external environment of neurons in the CNS
    astrocytes
  27. ___________ cells line the ventricles (cavities) of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord
    ependymal cells
  28. All axons in the PNS (myelinated and unmyelinated) are surrounded by a continuous living sheath of Schwann cells, known as the _______________, or sheath of Schwann
    neurilemma
  29. gaps in the myelin sheath exposed to produce nerve impulses
    nodes of ranvier
  30. white matter = ________
    myelinated axons
  31. gray matter = _________
    cells lacking myelination
  32. An autoimmune disease leading to degeneration of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths, which can develop hardened scars in the brain
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  33. _____________ promote neuron growth (in fetal development)
    neurotrophins
  34. Because K+ diffuse out of neurons, ______ take up this excess (maintains proper ion environment)
    astrocytes
  35. Astrocytes take up neurotransmitters to transform them to _________ and release back to the neruons (recycling)
    glutamate
  36. ____________ support synapse function and creation
    astrocytes
  37. astrocytes help stem cells form glial cells and neurons. this is called ______________
    neurogenesis
  38. The blood brain barrier is supported by ___________
    astrocytes
  39. molecules within brain capillaries must be moved through the endothelial cells by diffusion and active transport, as well as by endocytosis and exocytosis. This feature of brain capillaries imposes a very selective ___________
    Blood brain barrier!
  40. All cells in the body maintain a potential difference (voltage) across the membrane, or ___________, in which the inside of the cell is negatively charged in comparison to the outside of the cell
    Resting membrane potential
  41. resting membrane potential for a neuron is
    -70 mV (compared to heart muscles @ -85mV)
  42. If appropriate stimulation causes positive charges to flow into the cell, this change is ______________
    depolarization (hypopolarization)
  43. A return to resting membrane potential is called _______________
    repolarization
  44. stimulation causes the inside of the cell to become more negative than the resting membrane potential, this change is called _____________
    • hyperpolarization
    • (- charge enters cell OR + charge leaves cell)
  45. What medication acts by increasing the action of nitric oxide as a treatment for erectile dysfunction?
    Viagra
  46. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials are produced by
    glutamic acid
  47. A nerve is a bundle of axons in the CNS T/F?
    false; PNS
  48. What portion of the neuron is NOT involved in integration?
    axon
  49. A lack of extracellular Ca2+ would cause increased release of neurotransmitters T/F?
    False; decrease/inhibit
  50. Destruction of astrocytes would decrease the rate at which action potentials are transmitted T/F?
    False
  51. Neurotransmitter release can be inhibited by damaging the SNARE complex T/F?
    True; snare binds vesicle with terminal bouton to release NT, etc.
  52. The normal effect of b-endorphin can be blocked by
    naloxone
  53. Axons originate at the ___________
    axon hillock
  54. Which of the following affect(s) acetylcholine synaptic transmission? curare, strychnine, botulinum toxin
    Curare & botulinum toxin
  55. Which ion's outward diffusion movement is responsible for repolarization?
    K+
  56. Which poison inhibits glycine receptors?
    strychnine
  57. which type of synapse has a "delayed" impulse?
    chemical synapses
  58. The varied strength of synaptic transmission is called
    synaptic plasticity
  59. The membrane of resting nerve cells is more permeable to ____________ ions than ____________ ions.
    • potassium K;
    • sodium Na
  60. Fetal neuron growth requires the actions of a group of chemicals known as ________
    neurotrophins
  61. What process is needed to return a membrane to its resting membrane potential with all ions in the correct locations?
    Refractory period
  62. ___________________ are pseudounipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS
    sensory neurons
  63. Conduction of an action potential in a (myelinated) axon is called ___________
    saltatory conduction.
  64. Sensory nerves regulate muscle contraction T/F?
    False; motor nerves
  65. the opening of Cl- channels into the neuron produces a(n) __________ on the postsynpatic membrane
    IPSP (inhibitory post synaptic potential)
  66. muscarinic receptors are a type of glutamate receptor T/F?
    False; muscarine is involved with Acetylcholine
  67. conduction through dendrites and cell bodies of neurons are NOT action potentials T/F?
    true, action potentials are in the Axon
  68. Do all cells have a membrane potential?
    Yes.
  69. myelinated axons in the CNS: ____________
    White matter
  70. increased __________ of stimuli: this is the coding system used for neurons to get a greater response.
    frequency
  71. Postsynaptic inhibition is caused by ____________ & _____________
    GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glycine
  72. astrocytes phagocytose foreign material in the CNS T/F?
    False; microglial cells are responsible for phagocytosis
  73. _____ which is secreted as a hormone from the small intestine, is also released from neurons and used as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Promotes satiety (i.e. after eating).
    CCK (cholecystokinin)
  74. Cholinergic fibers use ____ as the neurotransmitter
    acetylcholine (ACh)
  75. Cells become more negative during ______________________.
    hyperpolarization
  76. The capacity of synapses for alteration at the molecular level is termed ___________
    synaptic plasticity
  77. What type of neuron is found entirely in the CNS?
    interneurons / association neurons
  78. Regeneration of CNS axons may be prevented in part by inhibitory proteins in the membranes of the ____________
    myelin sheath
  79. If the binding of muscarine to its receptor (in the heart) causes the beta-gamma complex (of the G-protein) to bind to a K+ channel... then the K+ channel will _____, leading to _____polarization and inhibition.
    • open;
    • Hyper-polarization
  80. Glutamate opens ion channels through ________ receptors binding to glycine, releasing ____ to open them. (in partially depolarized membrane).
    • NMDA;
    • Mg2+
    • **NO Cl- is involved**
  81. Hyperpolarization in the postsynaptic cell is caused by _______ and movement of _____ out of the cell
    • IPSP's(inhibitory post synaptic potential);
    • K+
  82. The period of time when Na+ channels are recovering from their inactive state, AND K+ channels are still open are ________ and ____________ periods
    • repolarization;
    • relative refractory
  83. __________ axonal transport may be responsible for movement of herpes virus, rabies virus, and tetanus toxin from nerve terminals to the cell body
    • retrograde
    • Synaptic plasticity involves structural changes in neurons such as formation of ___________
    • axillary branches
  84. What channels are present at the axon hillock that allows the production of action potentials?
    voltage-gated channels
  85. Atropine is an antagonist to nicotine T/F?
    False
  86. _________ can bind to nicotine receptors.
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
  87. moves TOWARD the cell body, uses molecular motor proteins of DYNEIN, & moves membranes, vesicles, and VIRUSES
    retrograde transport
  88. saltatory conduction is condution of a(n) ______________ in a myelinated axon
    action potential
  89. enkephalins, dynorphins, endorphins are examples of natural ___________
    analgesics
  90. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) would be produced by a neurotransmitter opening ________ channels
    Cl-
  91. Electrical synapses are functionally linked by ______ junctions
    gap
  92. cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)-- proteins that are present at ________ synapses to ensure ____ of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes?
    • chemical;
    • proximity
  93. Axonal transport is NOT passive T/F?
    true; it is active
  94. Both long-term potentiation and long-term depression requires release of ___ from the postsynaptic neuron membrane
    Ca2+
  95. Neurotransmitter release would be inhibited by blocking _________ influx in the axon terminal.
    Ca2+
  96. The greater the number of depolarization regions on an axon, the faster the action potential will be conducted T/F?
    False
  97. ________ are pseudounipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS
    sensory neurons
  98. alpha subunits bind to K+ channels, and close them... leading to depolarization-- This is the action of binding ________ to its receptors in the ________ system.
    • Muscarine;
    • digestive
  99. _________ is found around PNS axons, which are NOT found around CNS axons.
    neurilemma
  100. MAO inhibitors may cause hypertensive crisis by a person eating foods rich in __________
    tyramine
  101. The disease ______________ is characterized by destruction of CNS myelin sheaths and the formation of hardened scars
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
  102. The __________ dopamine system may be involved in emotional reward and drug addiction.
    mesolimbic
  103. Chemicals that stimulate action potentials in postsynaptic cells are called __________
    neurotransmitters
  104. Axonal _________ is inhibited by myelin-associated inhibitory protein
    regeneration
  105. ________ blocks the reUPTAKE of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
    cocaine
  106. What portion of the neuron is NOT involved in integration?
    the axon (involved in conduction!)
  107. Endogenous opioids transmit impulses of pain T/F?
    False; reduce impulses of pain
  108. What type of autonomic fibers release ACh at effectors?
    parasympathetic
  109. neurons that use ACh (acetylcholine) as a NT (neurotransmitter) are called _________ neurons
    Cholinergic (neurons)