Author:
dfusel2
ID:
137123
Filename:
KIN 2509 Ch 8
Updated:
2012-02-28 18:19:01
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pulmonology
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Description:
Ch 8 Pulmonology
Show Answers:

  1. pulmonology
    diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving the lower respiratory tract: the lungs, its airways and blood vessels, and the chest wall (thoracic cage)
  2. alveoli
    thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs that exchange gases
  3. apex
    the top, the end, or the tip of a structure, such as the apex of the lungs or the apex of the heart
  4. bifurcate
    divide in two branches or divisions; become forked
  5. bronchial tree
    branched airways of the bronchi and bronchioles that lead from the trachea to the microscopic airways in the lungs
  6. ciliated epithelium
    epithelial tissue with hairlike process (cilia) on the surface
  7. erythrocytes
    • red blood cells (RBCs)
    • erythrocytes transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
  8. eustachian tubes
    • the tubes that connect the middle ear and the nasopharynx
    • these tubes are normally closed but open during yawning, chewing, and swallowing to allow equalization of the air pressure in the middle ear with atmospheric pressure
    • auditory tubes
  9. glottis
    a slitlike opening through which air passes between vocal cords
  10. hemoglobin
    component of RBCs that transports oxygen to the cells of the body
  11. homeostasis
    • a relative constancy or equilibrium in the internal environment of the body
    • this balance is naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote a healthy survival
  12. olfactory nerves
    nerves that transmit signals controlling the sense of smell
  13. patent
    wide open and unblocked, such as a patent airway
  14. phrenic nerve
    nerve that extends through the thorax and provides innervation of the diaphragm
  15. pleural membranes
    double-folded membranes that enclose the lungs; comprise the visceral and parietal pleura
  16. uvula
    small, soft structure suspended from the soft palate
  17. pathway of inhaled air
    • inhaled oxygen
    • nose
    • nasal cavities
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
    • bloodstream
  18. pathway of exhaled air
    • bloodstream
    • alveoli
    • bronchioles
    • bronchi
    • trachea
    • larynx
    • pharynx
    • nasal cavities
    • nose
    • exhaled carbon dioxide
  19. nas/o
    nose
  20. rhin/o
    nose
  21. pharyng/o
    pharynx
  22. trache/o
    trachea
  23. alveol/o
    alveolus
  24. bronch/o
    bronchus
  25. bronchi/o
    bronchus
  26. rhinoplasty
    surgical repair of the nose to correct an anatomic defect or for cosmetic purposes
  27. pharyngoscopy
    visual examination of the throat
  28. tracheostomy
    forming an opening by incising the skin over the trachea to permit an open airway
  29. bronchospasm
    involuntary contraction or twitching of the smooth muscle in the bronchi
  30. bronchiole
    smaller tubular branches that are extensions of the bronchi
  31. lob/o
    lobe
  32. pector/o
    chest
  33. steth/o
    chest
  34. thorac/o
    chest
  35. pleur/o
    pleura
  36. pneum/o
    air, lung
  37. pneumon/o
    lung
  38. pulmon/o
    lung
  39. anthrac/o
    black, coal
  40. atel/o
    incomplete, imperfect
  41. lobectomy
    excision of a lobe of any organ or gland
  42. pectoral
    pertaining to the chest
  43. stethoscope
    instrument used to transmit to the examiner's ears sounds produced by the body
  44. thoracocentesis
    puncture of the chest to remove fluids
  45. pleuritic
    pertaining to an inflammation of the pleura
  46. pneumothorax
    collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity
  47. pneumonia
    collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity
  48. pulmonologist
    specialist in the study of pulmonary diseases
  49. anthracosis
    condition of coal dust in the lungs
  50. atelectasis
    incomplete expansion of the lung; a collapsed lung
  51. coni/o
    dust
  52. hem/o
    blood
  53. orth/o
    straight
  54. ox/o
    oxygen
  55. phren/o
    diaphragm, mind
  56. spir/o
    breathe
  57. pneumoconiosis
    condition of dust in the lung
  58. hemophysis
    spitting up blood
  59. orthopnea
    labored breathing that occurs when lying flat and is relieved by sitting up
  60. anoxia
    an abnormal condition characterized by lack of oxygen
  61. phrenospasm
    involuntary contraction of the diaphragm
  62. spirometry
    measurement or evaluation of air capacity of the lungs by means of a spirometer
  63. brady-
    slow
  64. dys-
    bad, painful, difficult
  65. eu-
    good, normal
  66. tachy-
    rapid
  67. hyper-
    excessive, above normal
  68. bradypnea
    slow breathing
  69. dysphonia
    difficulty in speaking; hoarseness
  70. -phonia
    voice
  71. eupnea
    normal breathing
  72. tachypnea
    rapid breathing
  73. hypercapnia
    excessive amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
  74. adult respiratory distress syndrome
    a form of pulmonary edema in which dyspnea and tachypnea are followed by progressive hypoxemia
  75. atelectasis
    a collapsed or airless condition of the lung or portion of the lung characterized by the collapse of the alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
  76. consolidation
    process of becoming solid (solidification) as when the lungs become firm and inelastic from pneumonia
  77. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    any pathological process with chronic obstruction of the bronchial tubes and lungs
  78. emphysema
    chronic condition characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls, which leads to permenantly inflated alveolar air spaces
  79. hyaline membrane disease, infant respiratory distress syndrome
    • atelectasis in the newborn, marked by cyanosis and dyspnea
    • caused by lack of surfactant, a substance produced by the lungs to keep the alveoli inflated
    • usually related to premature births and infants born to diabetic mothers
  80. pneumoconiosis
    lung disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of dust particles
  81. anthracosis
    accumulation of carbon deposits in the lung from inhalation of coal dust or smoke
  82. asbestosis
    lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles
  83. chalicosis
    lung disease resulting from the inhalation of dust produced by stone cutting
  84. silicosis
    lung disease resulting from the inhalation of quartz dust
  85. pneumonia
    infection of the lung caused by bacteria, virus, chemicals, or disease
  86. pulmonary abscess
    localized collection of pus in the lungs
  87. pulmonary cancer
    a malignant tumor that frequently originates in the bronchi
  88. pulmonary edema
    accumulation of fluid in the alveoli and interstitial spaces; most common cause is left-sided congestive heart failure
  89. pulmonary embolus
    blood clot or other material that travels through the bloodstream and lodges in the pulmonary vessels
  90. tuberculosis
    infection disease caused by the invasion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into the lungs, which produces tubercles (granulomatous lesions) that usally remain dormant and asymptomatic until the immune system becomes impaired (immunocompromised) and then active disease may occur
  91. asthma
    a respiratory disorder characterized by recurring episodes of paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing on expiration/inspiration caused by construction of the bronchi, coughing, and viscous mucoid bronchial secretions
  92. bronchiectasis
    chronic dilation of a bronchus with a secondary infection that can result in destruction of the bronchial walls
  93. bronchiolitis
    common infection in children under 18 mos of age that is caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
  94. chronic bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchial tree characterized by hypersection of mucus, cough, and expectoration of sputum over a prolonged period of time
  95. reactive airway disease
    recurring episodes of paroxysmal (sudden) dyspnea and wheezing caused by construction of the bronchi, coughing, and viscous mucoid bronchial secretions
  96. pneumothorax
    collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity
  97. open pneumothorax
    a "sucking wound" caused by an injury such as a bullet or stab wound that creates an opening in the chest wall allowing air to enter the pleural cavity, resulting in immediate collapse of the lung (atelectasis) on the affected side
  98. spontaneous/simple pneumothorax
    pneumothrorax caused by an opening on the surface of the lung from the rupture of lesions as seen with lung abscess, carcinoma, emphysema, tuberculosis, or the spontaneous tear of the lung tissue
  99. tension pneumothorax
    the most serious form of pneumothorax, which occurs when air enters the pleural cavity but is unable to escape
  100. pleural effusion
    passage of fluid into the pleural cavity
  101. empyema
    pus in the pleural cavity
  102. hemothorax
    blood in the pleural cavity
  103. hydrothorax
    a noninflammatory collection of fluid in the pleural cavity that may cause dyspnea
  104. pleurisy / pleuritis
    inflammation of the pleural membranes that causes them to rub together particularly during inspiration, producing severe, sharp pain (pleurodynia) and friction rub that can be heard or felt
  105. adventitious breath sounds
    abnormal breath sounds heard on auscultation to the chest
  106. pleural friction rub
    grating sound made by the motion of the pleural surfaces rubbing together, this can be heard by auscultation or felt through the fingertips when placed on the chest wall
  107. rales (crackles)
    abnormal crackling sounds heard on auscultation of the chest during inspiration
  108. stridor
    a high-pitched, harsh sound heard during respiration associated with obstruction of the larynx or bronchus; found in conditions such as croup
  109. rhonchus
    a wheezing, snoring, or squeaking sound heard during ausculation of the chest of a person with partial airway obstruction
  110. wheeze
    continuous musical sound heard during expiration or inspiration produced by air passing through a partially obstructed airway
  111. apnea
    temporary cessation of breathing or respirations
  112. asphyxia
    a condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
  113. bradypnea
    abnormally slow breathing evidenced by a respiratory rate of less than 12 respirations per minute
  114. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    abnormal breathing patter marked by 10 to 60 second periods of apnea followed by deeper and more frequent respirations; often associated with impending death
  115. dyspnea
    difficult or painful respiration; can be due to exertion or a pathological condition or injury
  116. hyperpnea
    an increase in the rate and depth of breathing
  117. hyperventilation
    increased ventilation that results in high oxygen levels and decreased carbon dioxide levels (hypocapnia)
  118. hypopnea
    a decrease in the rate and depth of breathing
  119. Kussmaul breathing
    breathing pattern characterized by deep, gasping respirations; associated with severe diabetic acidosis
  120. orthopnea
    condition in which breathing is easier in an upright position, either sitting or standing
  121. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
    sudden, periodic attacks of shortness of breath that occur at night and awaken the person
  122. tachypnea
    abnormally rapid breathing, evidenced by a respiratory rate of 40 or more respirations per minute; hyperventilation
  123. hemoptysis
    coughing or spitting up of blood
  124. mucus
    the viscous, slippery secretions of mucous membranes and glands containing mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells
  125. phlegm
    thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the airways of the lungs
  126. sputum
    materia coughed up from the lungs and expectorated through the mouth
  127. anoxemia / hypoxemia
    absence or deficiency of oxygen in the blood
  128. anoxia / hypoxia
    absence or deficiency of oxygen in tissues
  129. anthrax
    a disease affection primarily farm animals (cattle, goats, pigs, sheep, and horses), caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis
  130. clubbing
    condition that affects the fingers and toes where soft tissue changes to firm, fibrotic enlargement at the end of the digits, and lateral and longitudianal curvature of the nails occurs
  131. cyanosis
    bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by the presence of reduced hemoglobin
  132. cystic fibrosis
    • genetic disorder that produces a defect in the exocrine glands, causing abnormally thick, tenacious mucus
    • the glands most often affected are those of the respiratory system and the pancreas
  133. hypercapnia
    increased level of carbon dioxide in the blood
  134. mediastinal shift
    the effects of tension that increases in the pleural space, causing pressure on the heart and great vessels and pushing them away from the affected side of the chest
  135. respiratory acidosis
    the disorder occurs when there are above-normal levels of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) in the body, which in turn causes a decrease in the pH of blood and body fluids
  136. respiratory alkalosis
    this disorder occurs when a person hyperventilates, which lowers the carbon dioxide level (hypocapnia) in the body & creates an increase in the pH of blood and body fluids
  137. sudden infant death syndrome
    unexpected and unexplained death of a healthy infant that typically occurs when the child is sleeping, usually between the ages of 2 wks to 1 yr
  138. chest x-ray
    radiograph of the chest taken from the anteroposterior, posteroanterior or lateral projections
  139. chest computed tomography
    cross-sectional and three-dimensional imagining of the thorax; used to detect lesions in the lungs and thorax
  140. lung scan
    the use of radioactive substances or radiopharmaceuticals to image the lungs
  141. magnetic resonance imaging
    this technique provides cross-sectional images of the thorax by exposure to magnetic and radio frequency energy sources
  142. pulmonary angiography
    radiography of the blood vessels of the lungs after injection of a contrast medium
  143. tuberculin tests
    • diagnostic screening tests for tuberculosis
    • Mantoux test or tine test
  144. Mantoux test
    • purified protein derivative solution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is injected intradermally
    • a raised, red skin reaction after 48 to 72 hours confirms prior or present infection with tuberculosis
  145. tine test
    • a four-pronged application that contains PPD solution is used to puncture the skin
    • a raise, red skin reaction is suggestive of tuberculosis
  146. arterial blood gas
    a test that measures the oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood by various methods to assess the adequacy of ventilation and oxygenation and the acid-base status
  147. culture & sensitivity
    laboratory test that detects and identifies pathogenic bacteria and determines the appropriate antibiotic treatment
  148. sweat test
    analysis of a sweat sample to determine its chloride concentration; high levels are seen in children with cystic fibrosis
  149. auscultation
    use of a stethascope to listen to sounds within the body, especially in the chest, neck, and abdomen; used to detect crackles or wheezes in the lungs, pleural ribs, and other physiological phenomena
  150. bronchoscopy
    direct visualization of the bronchi using a flexible tube known as a bronchoscope, which is inserted through the mouth and trachea for the purpose of removing a foreign body, observing the air passages for disease, suctionaing secretions, or obtaining a biopsy specimen or secretion for examination
  151. intubation
    passage of a tube into a body aperature, specifically the insertion of a breathing tube through the mouth or nose in to the trachea to maintain an airway or for the delivery of anesthetic gases and oxygen or both
  152. lung biopsy
    excision of a small piece of lung tissue for microscopic examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis (esp. lung cancer)
  153. mechanical ventilation
    use of a device referred to as a mechanical ventilator, which provides assisted breathing to the patient
  154. pulmonary funtion test
    • any of several different tests used to evaluate the condition of the respiratory system
    • measures of expiratory flow and lung volume capacities are obtained
  155. thoracentesis
    insertion of a needle between the ribs and into the pleural space
  156. thoracic surgery
    surgery involving the rib cage and structures contained within the chest
  157. thoracotomy
    a surgical incision that opens up the chest for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
  158. tracheostomy
    • surgical opening through the back of the neck into the trachea for the insertion of a tube to create and open airway
    • the person breaths through this opening, bypassing the upper airways
  159. hyperbaric oxygenation
    • the administration of oxygen at greater-than-normal atmospheric pressure
    • specifically designed chambers permit the delivery of 100% oxygen at atmospheric pressure that is three times the normal level
  160. nebulized mist treatments
    use of a device for producing a fine spray (nebulizer) to deliver medication directly into the lungs
  161. postural drainage
    the use of body positioning to assist in the removal of secretions from specific lobes of the lung, bronchi, or lung cavities
  162. antibiotics
    drugs that combat bacterial infection and have the ability to inhibit or kill foreign organisms within the body
  163. anticoagulants
    drugs used to inhibit blood clotting, and to treat a serious condition called pulmonary embolism
  164. antifungals
    drugs used to treat fungal infections
  165. antismoking agents
    drugs that supply decreasing amounts of nicotine to help in the cessation of smoking
  166. antituberculars
    drugs that inhibit the spread or progress of tuberculosis in the body
  167. antitussives
    drugs that prevent or relieve coughing
  168. brochodilators
    drugs used to expand the opening of the passages into the lungs, relaxing the smooth muscle of the bronchi, therby increasing blood flow
  169. corticosteroids
    hormonal agents that reduce tissue edema and inflammation associated with chronic lung disease
  170. expectorants
    agents that promote the clearance of mucus from the respiratory tracts
  171. mucolytics
    a group of agents that liquefy sputum or reduce its viscosity so it can be coughed up more easily
  172. ABGs
    arterial blood gases
  173. AFB
    acid fast bacillus (TB organism)
  174. ARDS
    adult respiratory distress syndrome
  175. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  176. CBC
    complete blood count
  177. CF
    cystic fibrosis
  178. C&S
    culture and sensitivity
  179. CO2
    carbon dioxide
  180. COLD
    chronic obstructive lung disease
  181. COPD
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  182. CPR
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  183. CXR
    chest xray
  184. FEF
    forced expiratory flow
  185. FEV
    forced expiratory volume
  186. FRC
    functional residual capacity
  187. FVC
    forced vital capacity
  188. HCO3-
    bicarbonate
  189. HMD
    hyaline membrane disease
  190. IPPB
    intermittent positive-pressure breathing
  191. IRDS
    infant respiratory distress syndrome
  192. L
    liter, left, lumbar
  193. mg
    milligram (1/1000 grams)
  194. NMTs
    nebulized mist treatments
  195. PCP
    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
  196. PE
    physical examination, pulmonary embolism
  197. PEFR
    peak expiratory flow rate
  198. PFT
    pulmonary function test
  199. pH
    symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity
  200. pO2
    partial pressure oxygen
  201. PND
    paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
  202. PPD
    purified protein derivative
  203. RAD
    reactive airway disease
  204. RD
    respiratory disease
  205. RDS
    respiratory distress syndrome
  206. RSV
    respiratory syncytial virus
  207. RV
    residual volume, right ventricle
  208. SaO2
    arterial oxygen saturation
  209. SIDS
    sudden infant death syndrome
  210. SOB
    shortness of breath
  211. TB
    tuberculosis
  212. TPR
    temperature, pulse, respiration
  213. TV
    tidal volume
  214. VC
    vital capacity