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jjuven1
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137615
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SOCL 2001
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2012-02-28 12:56:11
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Sociology You May Ask Yourself Dalton Conley SOCL 2001
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chs. 1-6
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  1. sociology
    the study of human society
  2. Who argued that in the effort to think critically about the social world around us, we need to use our sociological imagination to see the connections between our personal experience and the larger forces of history?
    C. Wright Mills
  3. sociological imagination
    the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces
  4. social institution
    a complex group of interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it
  5. Who invented what he called "social physics" or "positivism"?
    Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
  6. Comte's three historical, epistemological stages
    • 1. Theological stage
    • 2. Metaphysical stage
    • 3. Scientific stage
  7. Comte's stage in which society seemed to be the result of devine will
    theological stage
  8. Comte's stage in which scholars might consult the Bible or other ecclesiastical texts
    theological stage
  9. Comte's stage in which Enlightenment thinkers such as Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Stuart Mill, and Thomas Hobbes saw humankind's behavior as governed by natural, biological instincts
    metaphysical stage
  10. Comte's stage in which to understand the nature of society, we needed to strip away the layers of society to better comprehend how our basic drives and natural instincts governed and established the foundation for the surrounding world
    metaphysical stage
  11. Comte's stage in which we would develop a social physics of sorts in order to indentify the scientific laws that govern human behavior
    scientific stage
  12. Who was the first to translate Comte into English?
    Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
  13. works of Harriet Martineau
    • Theory and Practice of Society in America (1837)
    • How to Observe Morals and Manners (1838)
  14. Who is considered one of the earliest feminist social scientists writing in the English language?
    Harriet Martineau
  15. founding fathers of the sociological discipline
    • Karl Marx
    • Max Weber
    • Emile Durkheim
    • sometimes: Georg Simmel
  16. most famous fo the founding fathers?
    Karl Marx (1818-1883)
  17. the term Marxism (an ideological alternative to capitalism) is derived from his surname
    Karl Marx
  18. Who criticized Marx for his exclusive focus on the economy and social class, advocating sociological analysis that allowed for the multiple influences of culture, economics, and politics?
    Max Weber (1864-1920)
  19. works of Max Weber
    • Economy and Society (1914)
    • lengthy essay - "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
  20. Verstehen
    • German: understanding
    • this concept forms the object of inquiry for interpretive sociology - to study how social actors understand their actions and the social world through experience
    • Weber suggested that sociologists approach social behavior from the perspective of those engaging in it
  21. founding father from France
    Emile Durkheim
  22. founding father from Germany
    Max Weber
  23. founding father who settled in London
    Karl Marx
  24. works of Emile Durkheim
    • The Division of Labor in Society (1893)
    • Suicide (1897)
    • The Elemental Forms of Religions of Life
  25. anomie
    • a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable
    • to little social regulation
    • normlessness
  26. positivist sociology
    a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships (akin to a social physics)
  27. received less credit as one of the founders of sociology, although as of late is gaining wider recognition
    Georg Simmel (1858-1918)
  28. established what we today refer to as formal sociology - that is, a sociology of pure numbers
    Georg Simmel
  29. emergence of American sociology characterized by which of the following:
    focus on big, sweeping theories
    more focused empirical research
    more focused empirical research
  30. "looking-glass self"
    • Charles Horton Cooley
    • the self emerges from an interactive social process
    • by refining our vision of how others perceive us, we develop a self-concept that is in constant interaction with the surrounding social world
  31. "social self"
    • Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead
    • the social environment shapes the individual
  32. most important black sociologist of the time and the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard
    W. E. B. DuBois (1868-1963)
  33. first sociologist to undertake ethnography in the African American community
    W. E. B. DuBois
  34. double consciousness
    a concept conceived by W. E. B. DuBois to describe the two behavioral scripts, one for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African Americans
  35. Who theorized that the breakdown of norms resulting from the sudden and newfound freedom of former slaves caused high crime rates among blacks (at least in the South)?
    W. E. B. DuBois
  36. considered a marginal member of the Chicago School, yet many of the movement's thinkers drew some of their insights from her applied work
    Jane Addams
  37. founded the first American settlement house, Hull House, an institution that attempted to link the ideas of the university to the poor through a full-service community center, staffed by students and professionals, which offered educational services and aid and promoted sports and the arts
    Jane Addams
  38. Where were the ideas of the Chicago School put into practice and tested?
    Hull House in Chicago
  39. functionalism
    the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important (or necessary) function to keep society running
  40. organicism
    • the notion that society is like a living organism, each part of which serves an important role in keeping society together
    • The state or government was seen to be the brain; industry was the muscular system; media and mass communications were the nervous system; and so on
  41. conflict theory
    the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general
  42. symbolic interactionism
    a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
  43. feminist theory
    • emerged from the women's movements of the 1960s and 1970s
    • shares many ideas with Marxist theory - in particular, the Marxist emphasis on conflict
    • emphasize equality between men and women and want to see women's lives and experivences represented in sociological studies
    • focused on defining concepts such as sex and gender and challenging conventional wisdom by questioning the meanings usually assigned to these concepts
    • focuses on inequalities based on gender categories
    • studied women's experiences at home and in the workplace, in social institutions such as schools, the family, and the government
    • sociologists remain interested in how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences
  44. Ann Oakley
    • Sex, Gender, and Society (1972)
    • argued that much of what we attribute to biological sex differences can be traced to behaviors that are learned and internalized through socialization
  45. focuses on big theories of society
    macrosociology
  46. focuses on how face-to-face interactions create the social world
    microsociology
  47. postmodernism
    a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progess and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations
  48. social constitutions
    an entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated as people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreed upon formal rules or informal norms of behavior associated with that entity
  49. midrange theory
    a theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function
  50. microsociology
    seeks to understand local interactional contexts; its methods of choise are ethnographic, generally including participant observation and in-depth interviews
  51. macrosociology
    generally concerned with social dynamics at a higher level of analysis - that is, across the breadth of a society
  52. research methods
    approaches that social scientists use for investigating the answers to questions
  53. quantitative methods
    methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form
  54. qualitative methods
    methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form
  55. deductive approach
    a research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis, makes empirical observations, and then analyzes the data to confirm, reject, or modify the original theory
  56. inductive approach
    a research approach that starts with empirical observations then works to form a theory
  57. correlation or association
    simultaneous variation in two variables
  58. causality
    the notion that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another
  59. reverse causality
    a situation in which the researcher believes that A results in a change in B, but B, in fact, is causing A
  60. dependent variable
    the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain
  61. independent variable
    a measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable
  62. hypothesis
    a proposed relationship between two variables
  63. operationalization
    the process of assigning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study
  64. validity
    the extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure
  65. reliability
    likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure
  66. generalizability
    the extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied
  67. reflexivity
    analyzing and critically considering our own role in, and affect on, our research
  68. population
    an entire group of individual persons, objects, or items from which samples may be drawn
  69. sample
    the subset of the population from which you are actually collecting data
  70. feminist methodology
    a set of systems or methods that treat women's experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources, that promote social science for (think public sociology, but for a specific half of the public), and that take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter
  71. participant observation
    a qualitative research method that seeks to observe social actions in practice
  72. forms of qualitative data
    • interviews
    • participant observation
    • survey
  73. survey
    an ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from respondents
  74. historical methods
    research that collects data from written reports, newspaper articles, journals, transcripts, television programs, diaries, artwork, and other artifacts that date to a prior time period under study
  75. comparative research
    a methodology by which two or more entities (such as countries), which are similar in many dimensions but differ on one in question, are compared to learn about the dimension that differs between them
  76. experimental methods
    • methods that seek to alter the social landscape in a very specific way for a given sample of individuals and then track what results that change yields
    • often involve comparisons to a control group that did not experience such an intervention
  77. content analysis
    a systemativ analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as a written work, speech, or film
  78. golden rules of research
    • do no harm
    • informed consent
    • voluntary participation
  79. "Do no harm"
    • first golden rule of research
    • do not want to cause physical, psychological, or emotional harm to subjects
  80. informed consent
    • second golden rule of research
    • subjects have a right to know they are participating in a study and what that study will consist of
  81. voluntary participation
    • third golden rule of research
    • people ahve a right to decide if they want to participate in a study
    • they also have the right to stop participating at any point with no penalty
    • protected populations: minors, prisoners and other institutionalized individuals, pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, the disabled; these people need additional approval to study
  82. public sociology
    the practice of sociological research, teaching, and service that seeks to engage a non-academic audience for a normative, productive end
  83. culture
    • a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices
    • the sum total of social categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs, behaviors (except instinctual ones), and practices
    • that which is not the natural environment around us
  84. culture = human - nature
    • a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices
    • technology by which humans dominate nature
    • Latin origins: to refine crops to meet human needs
    • ideologies and symbolic representations
  85. culture = superior man - inferior man
    • ethnocentrism
    • believing that your own culture is superior
    • viewing all cultures from your own culture's perspective
  86. culture = man - machine
    • culture as pursuit of perfection
    • the best which has been thought and said
  87. public sociology
    using sociology to influence social change
  88. material culture
    • everything that is part of our constructed environment
    • everything that is attached to a meaning or value
  89. nonmaterial culture
    values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms
  90. values
    moral beliefs
  91. norms
    social rules based on values
  92. subcultures
    • a group distinct from the larger culture, united by shared meaning
    • the distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in society; a group united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the members of that group distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society
  93. what's in a name?
    • names follow socially-structured patterns
    • reflect cultural trends and fashions
    • sometimes imply race
  94. socialization
    • process of internalizing values, beliefs and norms
    • learning to function as a member of society
    • cultural scripts: as you grow up, you're learning how to play the role of a human being; behaviors and understandings that are not universal or natural
  95. reflection theory
    • culture reflects society's underlying realities and structures
    • limitations: requires context to understand; does not explain why some cutural products remain popular, fade away, or change meaning over time; unidirectional says culture has no impact on society
    • the idea that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere, a screen onto which the film of the underlying reality or social structures of our society is projected
  96. media
    formats or vehicles that carry, present, or communicate information
  97. hegemony
    • the power that the media holds
    • dominant group creates popular consensus with persuasion (subtle power of persuasion)
    • hegemonic power of advertising: sets the tone, sits in the background, and nurtures consumerism
  98. consumerism
    • belief that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved through material possessions
    • selling emotion associated with product, not the product directly
    • parent companies
  99. ethnocentrism
    the belief that one's own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one's own
  100. ideology
    a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect
  101. cultural relativism
    taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgment or assigning value
  102. culture jamming
    the act of turning media against themselves
  103. self
    the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person
  104. I
    one's sense of agency, action, or power
  105. me
    • the self as perceived as an object by the "I"
    • as the self as one imagines others perceive one
  106. other
    someone or something outside of oneself
  107. generalized other
    an internalized sense of teh total expectations of others in a variety of settings - regardless of whether we've encountered those people or places before
  108. agents of socialization
    • family
    • school
    • peers
    • media
    • adult socialization
    • total institutions
  109. primary unit of socialization
    family
  110. for children, the primary locus of socialization largely shifts to:
    school
  111. around school age, these become an important part of our lives and function as agents of socialization
    peers
  112. resocialization
    the process by which one's sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered, often deliberately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution
  113. total institution
    an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority
  114. status
    a recognizable social position that an individual occupies
  115. role
    the duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status
  116. role strain
    the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status
  117. role conflict
    the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses
  118. status set
    all the statuses one holds simultaneously
  119. ascribed status
    a status into which one is born, involuntary status
  120. achieved status
    a status into which one enters; voluntary status
  121. master status
    one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others
  122. gender roles
    sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
  123. symbolic interactionism
    a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people's actions
  124. three basic tenets of symbolic interactionism
    • 1. Human beings act toward ideas, concepts, and values on the basis of the meaning that those things have for them
    • 2. These meanings are the products of social interaction in human society
    • 3. These meanings are modified and filtered through an interpretive process that each individual uses in dealing with outward signs
  125. dramaturgical theory
    the view (advanced by Erving Goffman) of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets
  126. face
    the esteem in which an individual is held by others
  127. ethnomethodology
    literally "the methods of the people", this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social order
  128. dyad
    group of two
  129. triad
    group of three or more
  130. unique characteristics of dyad
    • most intimate form of social life, partly because the two members are mutually dependent on each other - continued existence of group is entirely contingent on the the willingness of both parties to participate
    • no third person exists to buffer the situation or mediate between the two
    • members do not need to be concerned about how their relationship will be perceived by a third party
    • the group itself exerts no supra-individual control over the individuals involved
  131. mediator
    member of a triad who attempts to resolve conflict between the two other actors in the group
  132. tertius gaudens
    • the new third member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members of the group
    • latin for "the third that rejoices"
  133. divide et imera
    • latin for "divide and conquer"
    • the role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors in a group
  134. small group
    a group characterized by face-to-face interaction, a unifocal perspective, lack of formal arrangements, and a certain level of equality
  135. party
    a group that is similar to a small group but multifocal
  136. large group
    a group characterized by the presence of a formal structure that mediates interaction and, consequently, status differentiation
  137. primary groups
    social groups, such as family or friends, composed of intimate face-to-face relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved
  138. secondary group
    groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships (those existing as a means to an end)
  139. in-group
    another term for the powerful group, most often the majority
  140. out-group
    another term for the stigmatized or less powerful group, the minority
  141. reference group
    a group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups
  142. social network
    a set of relations - essentially, a set of dyads - held together by ties between individuals
  143. tie
    a set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our network
  144. narrative
    the sum of stories contained in a set of ties
  145. structural hole
    a gap between network clusters, or even two individuals, if those individuals (or clusters) have complementary resources
  146. social capital
    the information, knowledge of people, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or otherwise leverage social networks
  147. organization
    any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world
  148. organizational culture
    • the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group
    • often used interchangeably with corporate culture
  149. organizational structure
    the ways in which power and authority are distributed within an organization
  150. isomorphism
    a constraining process that forces one organization to resemble others that face the same set of environmental conditions
  151. social deviance
    any transgression of socially established norms
  152. crime
    the violation of laws enacted by society
  153. special cohesion
    • social bonds
    • how well people relate to each other and get along on a day-to-day basis
  154. mechanical or segmental solidarity
    special cohesion based on sameness
  155. organic solidarity
    social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts
  156. social control
    those mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals
  157. formal social sanctions
    mechanisms of social control by which rules or laws prohibit deviant criminal behavior
  158. informal social sanctions
    the usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership, the unspoken rules of social life
  159. social integration
    • how well you are integrated into your social group or community
    • low: egoistic
    • high: altruistic
  160. social regulation
    • the number of rules guiding your daily life and more specifically, what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day-to-day basis
    • low: anomic
    • high: fatalistic
  161. egoistic suicide
    suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group
  162. altruistic suicide
    suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration
  163. suicides based on religions
    • Judaism: low, bonded over persecution and rejection
    • Catholicism: lower than Protestant
    • Protestant: highest rate of egoistic suicide among major European religious groups; low sense of community due to encouragement of direct personal relationship with God; integrative structures of Catholicism are stripped away
  164. anomie
    • a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable
    • too little social regulation
  165. anomic suicide
    suicide that occurs as a result of too little social regulation
  166. fatalistic suicide
    suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation
  167. strain theory
    Merton's theory that deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals
  168. conformist
    individual who accepts both the goals and strategies to achieve them that are considered socially acceptable
  169. ritualist
    individual who rejects socially defined goals in order to live within his or her own means
  170. innovator
    social deviant who accepts socially acceptable goals but rejects socially acceptable means to achieve them
  171. retreatist
    one who rejects both socially acceptable means and goals by completely retreating from, or not participating in, society
  172. rebel
    individual who rejects socially acceptable goals and means but wants to alter or destroy the social institutions from which he or she is alienated
  173. labeling theory
    the belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see and label them, and their reactions to those labels, over time, form the basis of their self-identity
  174. primary deviance
    the first act of rule-breaking that may incur a label of "deviant" and thus influence how people think about and act toward you
  175. secondary deviance
    subsequent acts of rule-breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and people's expectations of you
  176. stigma
    a negative social label that not only changes your behavior towards a person but also alters that person's own self-concept and social identity
  177. broken windows theory of deviance
    theory explaining how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly: specifically, whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts
  178. street crime
    crime commited in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty
  179. white-collar crime
    offense committed by a professional (or professionals) against a corporation, agency, or other institution
  180. corporate crime
    a particular type of white-collar crime committed by the officers (CEOs and other executives) of a corporation
  181. deterrence theory
    philosophy of criminal justice arising form the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits
  182. recidivism
    when an individual who has been involved with the criminal justice system reverts back to criminal behavior
  183. total institution
    an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority
  184. panopticon
    a circular building composed of an inner ring and an outer ring designed to serve as a prison in which the detainees can always be seen and the observer, housed in the inner ring, is hidden from those being observed
  185. Questioning the reasons why people choose to attend college and the importance of a college degree is an example of ______.
    using the socialogical imagination (allowing yourself to recognize how the social world works and why)
  186. According to Karl Marx, throughout history social change has been sparked by _______.
    class conflict
  187. Which of the "founding fathers" of sociology put forth the idea that sociologists should examine social behavior from the perspective of those engaging in the behavior?
    Max Weber
  188. Sociology is the study of ____, ____, and ____.
    • what seems natural or normal to a given group of people
    • human society
    • how groups interact with one another
  189. using our sociological imagination helps us _____.
    make the familiar strange
  190. the examination of everyday human social interactions on a small scale
    microsociology
  191. 3 examples of social institutions
    • education system
    • government
    • marriage
  192. an example of an application of midrange theory (recall that midrange theory attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function)
    exploring the role of churches in rural areas
  193. postmodern theorists argue ...
    all phenomena have multiple meanings and no one meaning can be more valid than another
  194. this theory examines the interactions between people with a focus on how they talk, dress, and use body language
    symbolic interactionism (a micro-level approach that focuses on how face-to-face interactions create the social world)
  195. This American sociologist applied Durkheim's theory of anomie to explain African American crime rates
    W. E. B. DuBois
  196. correlation
    simultaneous change in two variables
  197. three factors needed to establish causation
    • correlation
    • time order
    • ruling out of alternative explanations
  198. the claims that the relationship proposed between two variables does not exist
    null hypothesis
  199. this allows people to ignore complex, underlying issues that are difficult to talk about
    use of stereotypes
  200. the idea that culture is a projection of social structures and relationships
    reflection theory