Author:
rfgyger
ID:
144079
Filename:
Psychology
Updated:
2012-03-26 22:00:26
Tags:
psychology
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Description:
Psychology test 3
Show Answers:

  1. Erikson is a Freudian Ego-psychologist
    Means: he accepts freuds ideas as basically correct, including the more debatable ideas, tho erikson is also more society and culture orriented
  2. The Epigenetic principle
    says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages
  3. The Eight stages of unfolding our personalities how does frued fit in?
    Erikson refines and expands Freuds psychosexual stages of development
  4. Each of the eight stages....
    • involes certain developmental tasks that are psychosocial in nature..
    • Refferd to by two terms
  5. what is Optimal Time in each of Erikson's eight stages
    Maladaptation, malignancy, and virture
  6. Define: Mutuality
    The interaction of generations
  7. Stage ONE
    oral-sensory stage.. TRUST vs MISTRUST

    • Maladaptive tendency- Sensory maladjustment (too much trust)
    • Malignant Tendency- Withdrawal (too much mistrust)
    • Equal amounts will give you Virtue- Hope and faith
  8. Stage TWO (2-3): Autonomy vs Shame and doubt
    Anal Muscular stage

    • Maladaptive-too much autonomy leads to impulsiveness
    • Malignancy- Too much shame and doubt leads to compulsiveness
    • Virtue- willpower or determination
  9. stage 3 (3-6): initiative vs. Guilt
    • Genital- Locomotor stage
    • Maladaptive- too much Initiative leads to ruthlessness
    • Malignancy- too much guilt leads to inhibition

    Virture- purpose
  10. Stage FOUR (7-12) Idustry vs. Inferiority
    Latency Stage

    • Maladaptive: too much industry leads ot narrow virtuosity
    • Malignancy: too much inferiority leads to Inertia
    • Virture- Competency
  11. Stage Five (12-18) Ego Identity vs Role Confusion
    • Adolescence- rites of passage
    • maladaptive tendency- only ego identity leads to fanaticism
    • malignant tendency- too much role confusion leads to repudiation
    • virture- Fidelity
  12. Stage six ( 18-30) Intimacy vs Isolation
    • Maladaptive-too much intimacy leads to promiscuity
    • Malignancy- too much isolation leads to exclusion
    • virture- LOVE
  13. stage seven (30-50)
    Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Maladaptive- overextension doing too much for others when should have time for self
    • Malignant- Only doing for themselfs leads to rejectivity
    • virture- capacity for caring
  14. stage eight ( 50-) Integrity vs Despair
    • Maladaptive- ignoring getting older presumption
    • Malignant- dwelling in getting older, Disdain
    • Virture- Wisdom
  15. Albert Bandura
    • British Columbia grad
    • studied Adolescent Aggression
    • Behaviorism was too simplistic, so turned it into Reciprocal Determinism...
  16. Reciprocal Determinism
    Albert Bendura says was the environmental causes behavior, true: but behavior causes enviroment as well
  17. Bandura belived personalit composed of 3 things...
    Enviorment, Behavior, and persons psychological processes
  18. Social Learning Theory
    Humans are conscious, thinking and feeling beings.

    Persons variables need to be coonsidered as well as enviroment

    Emphasis on the role of cognitive activity
  19. Personality developes through..
    observational learning of others' behavior says Bandura, then one will observe the actions and consequences of other's behaviors

    then they will store a mental representation
  20. Observational Learning
    Bobo doll studies
  21. Order of Bobo clown thinking...
    1. observe behavior 2. interpret and evaluate it 3.see consequences 4. think whether the behavior is appropriate for you 5.develope cognitive representations. 6.imitate behavior
  22. What 4 steps are involved in the modeling process?
    Attention, retentions, reproduction, motivation.
  23. Past Reinforcement-
    from traditional behaviorism
  24. Promised reinforcements
    that we can imagine
  25. Vicarious reinforcement
    seeing and recalling the model being reinforced
  26. Self Regulation
    • 1. self observation
    • 2 judgement
    • 3 self response
  27. Self reinforcement-
    meeting these goals lots of self praise and self reward (pride), leaving one with pleasent self concept (high self esteem)
  28. Self Punishment
    • opposite of self reinforcement, 3 parts in punishement
    • 1. Compensation- delusions of gradeur (narcissism)
    • 2- inactivity- apathy, depression
    • 3. Escape- drugs
  29. Modeling therapy
    Snake experiment
  30. Personality Variables vs. Situational Variables
    • Emaotional Personality traits,
    • Cognitive personality traits.
  31. Interaction debate
    some sparks in personality may be just forced by situtations in eviroment and at times these can be more powerful then actually types of personality
  32. 4 Combinations of personalities
    High Aggression, high need for social approval...ect.. 4 of them
  33. John Dollard and Neal MIller
    attempted to reconcile Freudian psycholotherapy and behaviorism. Tryied to explain freudian personality concepts in terms of behavirorims..
  34. John Dollar and Neal Miller Drives..Primary vs Secondary
    Secondary drives are more important to humans because they can indirectly lead to fulfillment of the primary drives
  35. Reinforment and Drives..?
    Reinforcement can not occur unless a behavior results in a drive reduction
  36. John DOllard and Neal MIller..the journey
    Belive humans value things by what they needed to do to get it..
  37. Dollard and MIller Learning..
    • drive, cue, responsce, reward..
    • Learning requires:
    • 1.Arousal of a drive
    • 2. cues of stimuli that identify the responce to be made, where and when
    • 3. The response when drive is aroused and cues are present
    • 4. the responce is rewarded
  38. D and M Frustration Aggression Model
    frustration is signiicant condition for aggression. confirmed by basic relation.

    Violence s an extreme form of aggression, SO when wer are blocked from achieving a goal we become frustrated and leads to aggression
  39. Pavlovs Terminology
    UCS, CS, UCR, CR
  40. Basic processes in operant Conditioning
    Acquisition, shaping, Extrinction, Stimulus Control (generalization, Discrimination)
  41. Ratio Schedules
    fixed, Variable
  42. Interval schedules
    Fixed, Variable
  43. Positvie Reinforcement
    response followed by rewarding stimulus
  44. Neg. Reinforcement
    Response followed by removal of an aversive stimulus
  45. Decreasing a response
    Punishment: responce followed by a presentation of an aversive stimulus
  46. Aversive Stimulus
    stimulus that is painful or uncomfortable (shock
  47. Escape learning
    learning to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus
  48. Avoidance learning:
    learning to make a response to avoid, postpone, or prevent discomfort just not doing it
  49. Biological constraints on conditioning
    • Instinctive Drift
    • conditioned taste aversion
    • preparedness and phobias
  50. Cognitive influences on conditioning
    response outcome relations