Author:
drewdisp
ID:
16133
Filename:
Cell Reproduction
Updated:
2010-04-25 16:34:30
Tags:
biology cell reproduction mitosis meiosis
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Description:
Cell Reproduction Unit of Biology
Show Answers:

  1. Why do cells reproduce (divide)?
    Demand on DNA, substances can't diffuse into cells with large volume as quickly as smaller cells.
  2. How Bacteria reproduce. DNA copies and then the cell splits in two.
    Binary fission
  3. How to eukaryotic body cells reproduce?
    Mitosis
  4. DNA that is loose and uncoiled when a cell is not dividing.
    Chromatin
  5. DNA that is tightly coiled just before cell division
    Chromosomes
  6. Each half of a copied chromosome (each half of the X)
    Chromatid
  7. Point where sister chromatids attach.
    Centromere
  8. How do you count the number of chromosomes in an organism?
    Count centromeres
  9. If there are 6 chromosomes in a cell and the DNA has copied, how many chromatids are there?
    12
  10. What are the phases of the cell cycle?
    G1, S, G2, Mitosis, Cytokinesis
  11. The longest phase of the cell cycle. Includes G1, S, and G2.
    Interphase
  12. A cell in this stage is no longer dividing.
    Gap 0 (G0)
  13. Period of growth before division
    Gap 1 (G1)
  14. DNA replicates during this stage of the cell cycle.
    Synthesis (S)
  15. Second period of growth during the cell cycle.
    Gap 2 (G2)
  16. Division of the nucleus.
    Mitosis
  17. Divison of the cytoplasm
    Cytokinesis
  18. Fibers that help move the chromosomes around by attaching at the centromeres.
    Spindle Fibers
  19. Only in animal cells, the spindle fibers extend from these to attach to the chromosomes.
    Centrioles
  20. What is the goal of mitosis?
    To creat identical cells. Creates somatic cells.
  21. What are the phases of mitosis?
    Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
  22. Phase of mitosis in which nuclear envelope breaks down, centrioles separate and spindle fibers form. Chromosomes are visible.
    Prophase
  23. Phase in mitosis in which chromosomes line up in the middle (at the equator).
    Metaphase
  24. Phase in mitosis in which sister chromatids separate and are pulles to opposite poles (sides of the cell).
    Anaphase
  25. Phase of mitosis in which chromosomes begin to become chromatin. 2 nuclear envelopes reform around chromosomes. Spindle fibers break down.
    Telophase
  26. How is cytokinesis different in plants and animals?
    In plants a cell plate forms beftween the two cells and the cell wall forms on either side of the plate. In animal cells a cleavage furrow forms and the cell divides.
  27. A mutation in the DNA that controls the cell cycle. The result are cells growing out of control.
    Cancer.
  28. How is the cell cycle controlled?
    There are checkpoints to make sure the steps of the cell cycle have properly occured.
  29. A tumor that does not spread or invade other parts of the body.
    Benign tumor
  30. A tumor that invades surrounding tissues and can spread to other areas of the body.
    Malignant tumor
  31. Cancer that has spread
    Metastasis
  32. Body cels (hair, skin, and muscle cells)
    Somatic cells
  33. Haploid sex cells (egg and sperm)
    Gametes
  34. What is the goal of meiosis?
    To creat sex cells with half the number of chromosomes.
  35. Chromosomes similar in size, shape and genetic information. One comes from mom and one comes from dad.
    Homologous chromosomes.
  36. 2 sets of chromosomes
    Diploid
  37. 1 set of chromosomes
    Haploid
  38. What is the diploid number of chromosomes in humans?
    46
  39. What is the haploid number of chomromosomes in humans?
    23
  40. Diploid fertilized egg
    Zygote
  41. Chomromosomes not involved in determining sex.
    Autosomes
  42. Chromosomes that determine sex.
    Sex chromosomes
  43. How many autosomes are in a human somatic cell?
    44 (22 pairs)
  44. How many sex chromosomes are in a human somatic cell?
    2 (1 pair)
  45. How many autosomes are there in a human gamete?
    22
  46. How many sex chromomes are in a human gamete?
    1
  47. What are the sex chromosomes for a human female?
    XX
  48. What are the sex chromosomes for a human male?
    XY
  49. Phase of meiosis in which chromosomes form tetrads, crossing over occurs, nuclear envelope breaks down, and spindle fibers form.
    Prophase I
  50. Phase in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes line up double file in the middle at the equator
    Metaphase I
  51. Phase of meiosis in which homologous chromosomes are pulled apart to opposite poles
    Anaphase I
  52. Phase in meiosos in which nuclear envelope reforms, cell divides into 2 cells, chromosome number is now cut in half.
    Telophase I/Cytokinesis
  53. Phase of meiosis in which nuclear envelope breaks down and spindle fibers form. Occurrs in 2 cells.
    Prophase II
  54. Phase in meiosis in which chromosomes line up single file in the middle of the cell at the equator.
    Metaphase II
  55. Phase of meiosis in which sister chromatids separate to opposite poles.
    Anaphase II
  56. Phase of meiosis in which chromosomes uncoil into chromatin, the nuclear envelope reforms and the 2 cells split into 4
    Telophase II/Cytokinesis
  57. Structure that forms when homologous chromosomes pair up (XX or xx)
    tetrads
  58. Occurs during Prophase I. Homologous chromosomes exhange pieces of DNA
    crossing over
  59. Random organization of the chromosomes at the equator
    Independant assortment
  60. Where does meiosis occur in humans?
    Testes and ovaries
  61. Formation of sperm by meiosis
    Spermatogenesis
  62. Formation of eggs by meiosis
    Oogenesis
  63. A mutation in which a piece of chromosome breaks off.
    Deletion
  64. Mutation that occurs during crossing over and instead of exchanging pieces equally, one chromosome has a section delted and this section is added to the homologous chromosome.
    Duplication deletion mutation.
  65. Mutation in which a chromosome piece reattaches to original chromosome but in reverse orientation.
    Inversion mutation
  66. Mutation in which a chromome piece attaches itself to a nonhomologous chromosome
    Translocation mutation
  67. Proper separation of chromosomes during meiosis
    Disjunction
  68. Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis resulting in too many or too few chromosomes in the gametes.
    Nondisjuction
  69. Picture of the chromosome in a cell that is used to check for abnormalities.
    Karyotype
  70. How does a person get too many or too few copies of a chromosome?
    Nondisjunction
  71. Humans with 3 copies of one chromosome
    Trisomy
  72. In which cells does mitosis occur?
    Somatic cells (body cells)
  73. What type of cells are formed during meiosis?
    Gametes (sex cells)
  74. Is mitosis involved in sexual or asexual reproduction?
    asexual reproduction
  75. Is meiosis involved in sexual or asexual reproduction?
    sexual reproduction
  76. how many times does the nucleus divide in mitosis?
    1
  77. How many times does the nucleus divide in meiosis?
    2
  78. Are the cells diploid or haploid at the beginning of mitosis?
    Diploid
  79. Are the cells diploid or haploid at the beginning of meiosis?
    Diploid
  80. Are the cells diploid or haploid at the end of mitosis?
    Diploid
  81. Are the cells diploid or haploid at the end of meiosis?
    Haploid
  82. What are the advantages of mitosis?
    Quick process and little energy needed
  83. What are the advantages of meiosis?
    Genetic diversity
  84. What are the disadvantages of mitosis?
    No genetic diversity
  85. What are the disadvantages of meiosis?
    Takes time and energy
  86. How many cells are produces at the end of mitosis?
    2
  87. How many cells are produced at the end of meiosis?
    4
  88. How are sister chromatids related?
    They contain identical copies of DNA