Author:
Palmer2012
ID:
183747
Filename:
Anatomy Section 6
Updated:
2012-11-14 22:50:13
Tags:
Arthrology
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Description:
Arthrology
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  1. immovable joint
    synarthrosis
  2. slightly movable joint
    amphiarthrosis
  3. freely movable 
    diarthrosis
  4. types of joints
    • Fibrous Articulations
    • Cartilaginous joints
    • synovial joints
  5. Fibrous Articulations
    • lack synovial cavity 
    • bones held closely by fibrous connective tissue
    • little or no movement 
  6. 3 structural Types of Fibrous Articulations 
    • sutures 
    • syndesmoses
    • gomphoses
  7. sutures
    • thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissues unite bones of skull
    • immovable
    • completely fused is synostosis
  8. syndesmoses
    • fibrous joint
    • bones united by ligaments
    • slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)
  9. Gomphoses
    • ligament holds cone shaped peg in bony socket
    • immovable (synarthrosis)
    • TEETH IN ALVEOLAR PROCESSES
  10. Catilaginous joints 2 types
    • syncgondroses
    • symphyses
  11. synchondroses
    • (cartilaginous)  connecting mater is hyaline cartilage
    • immovable (synarthrosis)
    • epiphyseal plate or joint between ribs and sternum
  12. cartilagionous joints features
    • lacks synovial cavity
    • allows little or no movement
    • tighlty connected by fibrocartilage or hayline cartilage 
  13. symphyses
    • fibrocartilage is connecting materials
    • slightly movable (amphiarthroses)
    • Intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis
  14. Synovial Joints features
    • synovial cavity seperates articulating bones
    • freely movable
    • articular cartilage
    • articular capsule
    • synovial membrane
  15. Articular cartilage (synovial joint)
    reduces friction and absorbs shock
  16. articular capsule (synovial joint)
    • surrounds joint
    • thickenings in fibrous capsule called ligaments
  17. synovial membrance (synovial joint)
    • inner linning of capsule
    • secretes synovial fluid
    • brings nutrients to articular cartilage
  18. Accessory features of Synovial joints
    • accessory ligaments
    • articular discs or menisci
    • bursae
    • tendon sheaths
  19. bursae
    fluid filled saclike extension of the joint capsule
  20. tendon sheath
    tube like bursae that wrap around tendons at wrist and ankle where many tendons come together in a confined space
  21. Bursitis
    • chronic inflammation of bursa
    • problem arises when bursa becomes inflammed and loses gliding capabilities and become more irritated when moving 
  22. movements at synovial articulations
    • gliding 
    • angular movements
    • rotation
    • special movements
    • circumduction
  23. Gliding in synovial joints
    no change in angle of joint
  24. angular movements in synovial joints
    • inceased or decreased in angle between articulating bones
    •  flexion, extension, hyper extension (horizontal axis)
    •  adduction, abduction
    • circumduction is a combination of of above movements
  25. rotation
    bones revolves around its own axis
  26. special movements
    uniquely named movements for jaw, hand and foot
  27. Circumduction
    • combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction
    • occurs at ball and socket, saddle, and condyloid joints
  28. types of synovial joints
    • planar joint
    • hinge joint
    • pivot joint
    • condyloid or ellipsoidal joint
    • saddle joint 
    • ball and socket joint
  29. Planar joint
    • flat bone surfaces
    • only side to side movement
    • rotate prevented by ligaments 
    • sternoclavicular joint
    • vertebrocostal joint 
  30. Hinge Joint
    • convex surface of one bone fits into concave surface of second bone uniaxial
    • -knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joints
  31. flexion
    decrease the joint angle
  32. extension
    increasing the angle
  33. hyperextension
    opening the joint beyond the anatomical position
  34. Pivot joint
    • rounded surface of bone articulates with ring formed by 2nd bone & ligament
    • monoxial
    • -proximal radioulnar joint
    • -atlanto-axial joint 
  35. Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joint
    • oval-shaped projection fits into oval depression
    • biaxial
    • -wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints
  36. Saddle Joint
    • one bone saddle-shaped: otherbones fit as a person would sitting in that saddle
    • biaxial
    • -trapezium of carpus and metacarpal of the thumb
  37. Ball and Socket Joint
    • Ball fitting into a cuplike depression
    • multiaxial
    • -shoulder and hip joint
  38. Main Joints of the Body
    • Shoulder Joint
    • Elbow Joint
    • Radiocarpal Joint
    • Hip Joint
    • Tibiofemoral (Knee) Joint
    • Temporomandibular Joint
    • Atlanto-occipital Joints
    • Intervertebral Joints
    • Talocrural (Ankle) Joint
  39. Shoulder Joint
    • Head of Humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula
    • Ball and socket
  40. Elbow Joint
    • Hinge Joint
    • -Trochlea notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus
    • -flexion and extension of elbow
    • Piviot joint
    • -Head of radius and capitulum of humerus
    • -supination and pronation of forearms
  41. Radiocarpal Joint
    • Articular disc
    • Condyloid type
    • Flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction
  42. Hip Joint
    • Head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone
    • Ball and Socket type of Joint
    • All types of movement possible 
  43. Tibiofemoral (Knee) Joint
    • Between Femur, Tibia, and, Patella
    • Hinge joint between tibia and femur
    • Gliding joint between patella and femur
    • Flexion,extension, and slight rotation of tibia and femur when knee if flexed
  44. Temporomandibular Joint
    • Synovial Joint
    • Articular disc
    • gliding above disc
    • Movements
    • -depression, elevation, protraction, & retraction
  45. Atlanto-occipital Joints
    • Atlas and occipital condyles
    • condyloid joint
    • flexion 
    • extension 
    • sight lateral bending
  46. Intervertebral Joints
    • between bodies and vertebral discs
    • between vertebral articular processes
    • flexion
    • extension
    • lateral flexion
  47. Talocrural (Ankle) Joint
    • Tibia & fibula with talus
    • Hinge
    • Inversion, eversion, plantarflexion, & dorsiflexion