____ involves working with stakeholders to create the document that formally authorizes a project.
Developing the project charter
The outputs of which process include approved and rejected change requests, approved corrective andpreventive actions, approved and validated defect repair, deliverables, and updates to the project managementplan and project scope statement?
Perform integrated change control
____ analysis is used to aid in strategic planning.
In which Information Technology Planning Stage do organizations document key business processes that couldbenefit from information technology?
b. Business Area Analysis
One method for selecting projects based on ____ is to determine whether they first meet three important criteria: need, funding, and will.
broad organizational needs
____ are new requirements imposed by management, government, or some external influence.
____ analysis is a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in time.
Net present value
The ____ is the minimum acceptable rate of return on an investment
required rate of return
A(n) ____ is a methodology that converts an organization’s value drivers, such as customer service, innovation,operational efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics.
A(n) ____ is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project’s objectives and management.
A(n) ____ is a document that describes the products or services to be created by the project team.
statement of work
A(n) ____ is a document used to develop and confirm a common understanding of the project scope.
A(n) ____ is a document used to coordinate all project planning documents and help guide a project’s execution and control.
project management plan
Which section of the project plan should describe the major project functions and activities and identify thoseindividuals who are responsible for them?
Which section of the project management plan describes how to monitor project progress and handle changes?
Which section of the project management plan might include a Gantt chart?
Project schedule information
The majority of time on a project is usually spent on ____, as is most of the project’s budget.
____ should result in improvements in project performance.
____ provide information on how project execution is going.
A(n) ____ is a formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents may bechanged.
change control system
A(n) ____ is a formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes to a project.
Project sponsors are usually most interested in ____.
Final products, services, or results
____ means the project’s processes and products meet written specifications.
Conformance to requirements
The ____ ultimately decides if quality is acceptable.
Quality ____ includes identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy thosestandards.
____ is the degree to which a system performs its intended function.
____ is the ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions.
____ are the system’s special characteristics that appeal to users.
____ generates ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or productcharacteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization.
____determine(s) if the products or services produced as part of the project will be accepted or rejected.
____ is action taken to bring rejected items into compliance with product requirements or specifications orother stakeholder expectations.
____ involves identifying the vital few contributors that account for most quality problems in a system.
____ is a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining and maximizing business success.
Six Sigma’s target for perfection is the achievement of no more than ____ defects, errors, or mistakes per million opportunities.
Important tools used in the ____ phase of the DMAIC process include a project charter, a description ofcustomer requirements, process maps, and Voice of the Customer (VOC) data.
A(n) ____ is any instance where the product or service fails to meet customer requirements.
A(n) ____ chart is a graphic display of data that illustrates the results of a process over time.
The ____ rule states that if seven data points in a row are all below the mean, above the mean, or are allincreasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for nonrandom problems.
A(n) ____ is done to test each individual component (often a program) to ensure that it is as defect-free aspossible.
____ cost is the cost of evaluating processes and their outputs to ensure that a project is error-free or within anacceptable error range.
____ involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing timely feedback,resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project performance.
Managing the project team
Key outputs of the ____ process are project staff assignments, resource availability information, and updates tothe staffing management plan.
Acquiring the project team
____ is best known for developing a hierarchy of needs.
____ is at the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
____ is best known for distinguishing between motivational factors and hygiene factors when considering motivation in work settings.
People with a high need for ____ desire harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel acceptedby others.
According to Thamhain and Wilemon, ____ is the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders.
____ power involves using punishment, threats, or other negative approaches to get people to do things they donot want to do.
____ is the matching of certain behaviors of the other person.
____ managers fill in for project managers in their absence and assist them as needed.
What is the first step in the framework for defining and assigning work?
Finalizing the project requirements
A(n) ____ is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time.
Resource ____ refers to the amount of individual resources an existing schedule requires during specific timeperiods.
Resource ____ is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks.
In the Tuckman model, ____ occurs when the emphasis is on reaching the team goals, rather than working onteam process.
In the MBTI, the ____ dimension relates to the manner in which you gather information.
____ involves collecting and disseminating performance information, including status reports, progressmeasurement, and forecasting.
The output of the ____ process is a communications management plan.
The project’s ____ is a starting point for identifying internal stakeholders.
Having ____ review and approve all stakeholder communications analysis will ensure that the information iscorrect and useful.
Information regarding the content of essential project communications comes from the ____.
The ____ serves as a good starting point for information distribution.
stakeholder communications analysis
Often, many non-technical professionals—from colleagues to managers—may prefer to ____ about projectinformation to try to find pertinent information.
have a two-way conversation
____ are often more effective than ____, particularly for sensitive information.
Short face-to-face meetings, electronic communications
Many people cite research that says in a face-to-face interaction, ____ percent of communication is through body language.
Since information technology projects often require a lot of coordination, it is a good idea to have ____meetings.
As the number of people involved in a project ____, the complexity of communications ____.
____ describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period.
Many practitioners define project success as ____.
satisfying the customer/sponsor
Project sponsors can usually rank scope, time, and cost goals in order of importance in a(n) ____.
expectations management matrix
A(n) ____ is a matter under question or dispute that could impede project success.
____ issues cause the most conflicts over the project life cycle.
When using the ____ mode, project managers directly face a conflict using a problem-solving approach thatallows affected parties to work through their disagreements.
When using the ____ mode, project managers exert their viewpoint at the potential expense of anotherviewpoint.
Research indicates that project managers favor using ____ for conflict resolution over the other four modes.
A(n) ____ meeting is a meeting held at the beginning of a project or project phase where all major projectstakeholders discuss project objectives, plans, and so on.
“Many meetings are most effective with the minimum number of participants possible.” Which guideline tohelp improve time spent at meetings does this statement relate to?
Determine who should attend the meeting
“Designate someone to take minutes and send the minutes out soon after the meeting.” Which guideline to helpimprove time spent at meetings does this statement relate to?
Run the meeting professionally
A communications ____ is a set of tools, techniques, and principles that provides a foundation for the effectivetransfer of information among people.
Project ____ are a complete set of organized project records that provide an accurate history of the project.
Those who are ____ have a higher tolerance for risk, and their satisfaction increases when more payoff is atstake.
____ involves determining which risks are likely to affect a project and documenting the characteristics of each.
Risk management planning
____ involves numerically estimating the effects of risks on project objectives.
Quantitative risk analysis
____ are developed for risks that have a high impact on meeting project objectives, and are put into effect ifattempts to reduce the risk are not effective.
“If the information technology project is to produce a new product or service, will it be useful to theorganization or marketable to others?” Which risk category does this question apply to?
In a risk breakdown structure, competitors, suppliers, and cash flow fall under the ____ risk category.
Poor conflict management, poor project organization and definition of responsibilities, and absence ofleadership are risk conditions associated with which project management knowledge area?
____ is a fact-finding technique for collecting information in face-to-face, phone, e-mail, or instant-messagingdiscussions.
A project manager can chart the probability and impact of risks on a(n) ____.
A(n) ____ is a diagramming analysis technique used to help select the best course of action in situations inwhich future outcomes are uncertain.
____ involves eliminating a specific threat, usually by eliminating its causes.
____ involves doing whatever you can to make sure the positive risk happens.
____ risks are a direct result of implementing a risk response.
“Outsourcing suppliers are often able to use economies of scale that may not be available to the client alone,especially for hardware and software.” Which benefit of outsourcing does this statement refer to?
Reduce both fixed and recurrent costs
“Most organizations are not in business to provide information technology services, yet many have spentvaluable time and resources on information technology functions when they should have focused on corecompetencies such as marketing, customer service, and new product design.” Which benefit of outsourcing doesthis statement refer to?
Allow the client organization to focus on its core business
“Outsourcing to provide extra staff during periods of peak workloads can be much more economical than tryingto staff entire projects with internal resources.” Which benefit of outsourcing does this statement refer to?
____ involves describing requirements for the products or services desired from the procurement andidentifying potential sources or sellers.
____ involves managing the relationship with the selected seller.
Administering the contract
The procurement management plan, contract statement of work, make-or-buy decisions, and projectmanagement plan are all important inputs for the ____ process.
____ change orders are oral or written acts or omissions by someone with actual or apparent authority that canbe construed to have the same effect as a written change order.