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ryan666
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218872
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POLI 102
Updated:
2013-05-10 16:26:05
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Final prep
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Exam 1,2,3
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  1. a basic difference between a parliament such as great Britain and the U.S. Congress is that
    party leaders in a parliament can more acceptably pressure their members to vote with the party.
  2. Throughout the past decades, congress has consistently become more
    localistic
  3. legislators who think of themselves as trustees are most likely to
    do what they perceive is best
  4. leadership carries more power in the house than in the senate because.
    house rules closely regulate debate and the scheduling of business
  5. standing committees are of two types, those that influence public policy and those that
    serve constituency groups
  6. increased reliance on staff has made congress more.
    individualistic
  7. under that constitution, bills can originate in either house of congress with the exception of
    bills for raising revenue, which must begin in the house.
  8. a joint resolution
    has the force of law
  9. probably the main reason behind the domination of congress by the democrats for four decades until the mid 1990 is
    incumbency
  10. the greatest source of presidential power is
    politics and public opinion
  11. presidents, even with great majorities of their own party in congress, experience difficulty in exercising legislative leadership because.
    the president is unable to control congress, unlike a prime minister.
  12. Andrew Jackson established the practice that the presidents veto can be used.
    on policy grounds even when a bill may be constitutional
  13. among the presidents who have had difficulty communicating with the public and have therefore encountered difficulty while in office are
    johnson, nixon, george h. w. bush
  14. the personal popularity of the president has its greatest effect on.
    how congress treats his legislative proposals
  15. the area in which the president is strongest and encounters the least congressional interference is
    foreign policy
  16. the decisive check on presidential authority in foreign policy is
    public opinion
  17. in recent decades, all presidents have had to devote substantial amounts of their time to foreign affairs and to
    economy
  18. during most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, appointments to the civil service were based primarily on.
    patronage.
  19. a public official who decides to follow a course of action not specified in the law, but on that could be inferred from it, is most likely to be
    exercising discretion.
  20. the recruitment and retention policies of the civil service work to ensure that most bureaucrats have
    an agency point of view
  21. the reason legislative vetoes have been declared unconstitutional is that
    any action having the force of law must be sent to the president for approval
  22. the difference between a providentially and congressional oriented agency is that
    providentially oriented agencies usually do not distribute benefits.
  23. generally, government agencies prefer to
    remain autonomous and independent of other agencies.
  24. unlike members of parliament, members of congress can become involved in the details of lawmaking because.
    congress is more internally decentralized and is more independent of the chief executive.
  25. according to the original constitution, senators were to be elected by
    the state legislatures.
  26. the conservative coalition decreased in significance from the 1980sonward because
    conservative southern democrats were replaced by republicans
  27. a primary election is usually most influenced by
    the individual candidates efforts
  28. as conservative voters have more consistently supported the republican party and liberal voters have more consistently supported the democratic party, political deliberations have become increasingly
    polarized.
  29. members tend to vote with their parties in congress because
    members tend to share the ideologies of the party with which they are affiliated.
  30. the purpose of a conference committee is to
    resolve differences between house and senate versions of a bill
  31. which of the following statements about the current cloture rule is correct.
    it requires three fifths of the entire senate membership to sign a petition to move cloture.
  32. for members who seek to mirror their constituents views, the principal difficulty is
    the lack of clear and consistent policy positions from their district
  33. one of the apparent manifestations of congressional weakness during the 1960s and early 1970s was
    presidential refusal to spend appropriated money
  34. each state determines how to cast its electoral college votes. today, the system adopted by most of the states is.
    winner take all
  35. when a presidential election is thrown into the house, each _____ casts one vote
    state delegation.
  36. president Lincoln justified his unprecedented use of the vague powers granted in article 2
    conditions created by civil war.
  37. the rule of propinquity states that
    power tends to be wielded by people who are in the room where a decision is made.
  38. the impact of the presidential race upon the outcome of congressional elections is usually
    is quite strong with a popular presidential candidate accounting for the victories of numerous congressional candidates of his party
  39. as a rule, presidential popularity tends to
    decrease the longer a president is in office.
  40. presidents experience great difficulty in planning a program. one factor that prevents a president from creating a comprehensive program is the
    fact that most federal expenditures are beyond the presidents control
  41. the proportion of measures submitted by the president to congress that are approved is
    less than half
  42. in seeking reelection, most presidents have been
    unsuccessful
  43. one source for the expansion of presidential power has been
    the presidents role in foreign affairs
  44. political authority over the bureaucracy is
    shared between the presidency and congress
  45. the supreme courts current position on the regulatory power of federal agencies is that
    congress can instruct an agency to make the decisions necessary to solve a policy problem
  46. the reason the federal bureaucracy has not grown for over two decades is that
    much federal work is handled indirectly by consultants and local governments
  47. the civil service reform act of 1978 was designed to
    allow the president more flexibility in recruiting for high level positions in the civil service
  48. the political values of top level federal bureaucrats tend to be
    more liberal than the average voter.
  49. which of the following is true of an agency with a sense of mission
    it can be resistant to direction from the president or congress
  50. agencies become captured by interest groups because
    agencies need strong allies in the private sector to lobby on their behalf.
  51. removing an individual from office before his or her term has expired is called
    recall
  52. which of the following is a major strength of a parliamentary democratic system when compared to a presidential system
    simplifies accountability to the electorate
  53. both politics and policies differ between the American and European versions of democracy. the form of democracy developed in the united states is a product of its constitutional system and the
    values of the American people
  54. in a parliamentary system, the chief executive is usually chosen by the
    legislature majority party
  55. the goal of the American revolutions was
    liberty
  56. if the united states were operating today under the articles of confederation, a problem like pollution affecting the environment would be handled by
    the individual states.
  57. under the great compromise, senators were chosen by
    state legislatures.
  58. the constitution failed to outlaw slaver because
    southern support was essential to the adoption of the document
  59. the nature of the amendment process has probably kept the amendments added to the constitutions
    relatively few in number
  60. the power of popular majorities is limited by
    judicial review
  61. today, many people think of equality differently that the founders, they no believe that the role of the government is to
    reduce differences in wealth
  62. according to beard, the chief factor motivation the framers of the constitution was
    economic self interest
  63. perhaps the most obvious effect of federalism in the united states has been to
    mobilize political activity
  64. the civil war led to the expansion of the power of
    the national government
  65. for the founders, federalism was a device to
    protect liberty
  66. a federal grant designed for a specific purpose designed by a federal law is called
    a categorical grant.
  67. the doctrine of dual federalism grew out of a debate on the subject of
    commerce
  68. if you were a governor or mayor, you would probably be most likely to favor
    block grants.
  69. distributional formulas have created
    rivalry among states
  70. the efforts of republicans is congress since 1994 to pass on o the states many federal functions is referred to as
    devolution
  71. in a representative democracy
    all of these above.
  72. a liberal democracy is a government in which
    personal rights and freedoms are given first priority
  73. the liberties that the colonists fought to protect were based upon
    natural rights created by god.
  74. the reason that a movement emerged to revise the articles of confederation was Because
    the nation appeared to be in danger, with internal order being lost
  75. some historians have called the constitution a repudiation of the American revolution. the probable reason for this belief is that
    the constitution created a central government with strong powers.
  76. the concept of separation of powers involves
    dividing up the functions of the government
  77. giving sovereign power to the nation government and residual power to the states is referred to as
    federalism
  78. the framers of the constitution believed that two types of majorities were essential on important questions. they are majorities of
    voters and states.
  79. generally, the anti federalists felt that the government created by the constitution was
    too strong and too centralized.
  80. the constitution is based on the philosophical belief that
    people are selfish but their ambition can be harnessed.
  81. the ratification debates about the constitution focused on the question of
    liberty
  82. one of the things that has kept local governments independent of the national government is
    the commitment of Americans to the ideal of local government.
  83. a government is not federal unless its state and local units
    exist independently of the preferences of the national government and make some decisions on their own.
  84. the authority left to the states under the tenth amendment amounts to
    all powers not delegated to the federal government by the constitution or prohibited by it to the states.
  85. the civil war settled the issue that
    the national government derived its sovereignty from the people.
  86. the supreme court, in McCullough v. Maryland, decided in 1819 that
    congress could exercise certain powers even though they were not specifically mentioned in the constitution.
  87. the doctrine of nullification refers to the
    authority of the states to declare a federal law void.
  88. in the 1960s and 19070s, federal grants to states were increasingly based on
    what federal officials perceived to be important states needs.
  89. the term intergovernmental lobby refers to lobbying activities by
    stat and local officials at the national government.
  90. the difference between a mandate and a condition of aid is that
    a mandate stipulates a certain action independent of federal funding, while a condition of aid stipulates how federal funds will be spent.
  91. john Locke
    natural rights doctrine
  92. john Marshall
    supremacy of national laws.
  93. Thomas Jefferson
    strict constructionist
  94. James Madison
    coalition of majorites
  95. Alexander Hamilton
    loose constructionist
  96. concurrent power
    authority to tax a persons personal income.
  97. implied power
    authority to establish a national bank
  98. denied power
    authority to pass an ex post facto law
  99. reserved power
    authority to regulate the use of land
  100. delegated power
    authority to regulate interstate commerce
  101. over the past several decades, the political party benefiting from the gender gap or women distinctive policy preferences, has
    changed from republicans to democrats
  102. the constitution created a representative form of government. according to the intentions of the framers, the government should follow public opinion.
    only to the extent that it agrees with certain substantive goals
  103. the reason religion has an impact upon political attitudes is that
    religion conveys a way of looking at human nature and human affairs
  104. the national press plays the tole of gatekeeper. this means that it can
    influence what subjects become national political issues
  105. comparing the print media and the electronic media, we find that
    electronic media are more competitive and more strictly regulated
  106. electronic journalism has contributed to the decline in party loyalties because
    politicians develop personal followings independent of party structure.
  107. the mass media is not a true mirror of reality because
    there is a process of selection, of editing, and of emphasis.
  108. one explanation of the differences between American and European political parties is that
    federalism promotes decentralization of both political authority and parties.
  109. the current democratic and republican parties can be characterized as
    autonomous, independent units organized at the local level
  110. the text argues that the central problem of political parties today is
    appealing to moderate voters despite ideological activeists
  111. unlike those in the united states. interest groups have remained weak in Europe because.
    political parties have stayed strong in Europe
  112. information is an important resource available to interest groups because
    members of congress must take positions on a large number of issues and need up to the minute information.
  113. according to the text, the main reason people do not participate in politics
    politics offers few rewards.
  114. in voting, the average person behaves by
    making retrospective decision on issues.
  115. the increased reliance on the mass media by candidates has resulted in
    an emphasis upon the personal qualities of candidates.
  116. in most presidential elections, a majority of the voters deiced whom they will vote for
    after the conventions
  117. an electoral realignment occurs when
    votes choose sides in new patterns.
  118. between the two major parties in America there are
    large policy differences among activists, and much smaller ones among rank and file.
  119. mass media probably have the least effect on
    how people vote in elections
  120. people are less likely to take their cues from the media on
    matters that affect them personally
  121. funding for congressional elections comes from
    private sources only
  122. a simple random sample means that
    every person has a equal chances of being selected.
  123. a conservative today might oppose all of the following except
    tax reduction.
  124. according to careful study, the news media treat opposing candidates
    about evenly
  125. a major structural bias of television news is
    covering events that can be presented visually
  126. one reason for the decline in party identification is
    the proportionally larger number young voters.
  127. the nations convention of the republican party nominates
    two candidates for public office.
  128. which of these groups is more likely to cote
    older people rather than younger people
  129. typical, the candidate with the greatest advantage in a election is
    the incumbent, who benefits from retrospective voting.
  130. by most evidence in the 1990s party politics seemed to be
    Dealigning.
  131. poor voters, contrary to popular belief, more often support republican candidates because.
    the poor include man elderly, retired persons who are traditionally republican.
  132. the growth of numerous public interest lobbies in the 1960s was an example of interest groups formed as a result of
    the enlargement of governmental responsibilities.
  133. in general, the influence of radio and television on political beliefs has
    reinforced existing beliefs but probably not changed them
  134. the value of information, the power of the lobbyist, and thus the success of interest groups are greatest when the issue.
    is fairly narrow
  135. soft money refers to unrestricted donations which can be given
    to national parties for party building.
  136. one major effect of ticket splitting in national elections is an
    divide government, in which on party controls the presidency, the other congress.
  137. in order to win the party nomination, candidates need to appear
    liberal if democrats, conservative if republican.
  138. in an off year election, the presidents party almost always
    loses seats in congress.
  139. registration requirements have
    reduced the number of people voting.
  140. voting rights act of 1965
    made the literacy test illegal
  141. when a voter decides to support a candidate ion the basis of the persons past record, such as vote is called
    retrospective.
  142. the benefit of television to campaigns for national office is that it not only reaches more people but also
    is the information sources most people trust
  143. today a person wanting to win a election will most often seek the support of
    a personal following
  144. the text concludes that elections
    are often significant in producing change.
  145. the reason for greater participation by American in civic associations is
    their sense of political efficacy and civic duty.
  146. national party conventions
    selects party vice presidential candidates
  147. state presidential primaries
    selects party delegates
  148. electoral college
    selects U.S president
  149. national party committees
    selects national party chairman
  150. direct primaries
    select party candidates for the U.S. Congress.