a basic difference between a parliament such as great Britain and the U.S. Congress is that
party leaders in a parliament can more acceptably pressure their members to vote with the party.
Throughout the past decades, congress has consistently become more
legislators who think of themselves as trustees are most likely to
do what they perceive is best
leadership carries more power in the house than in the senate because.
house rules closely regulate debate and the scheduling of business
standing committees are of two types, those that influence public policy and those that
serve constituency groups
increased reliance on staff has made congress more.
under that constitution, bills can originate in either house of congress with the exception of
bills for raising revenue, which must begin in the house.
a joint resolution
has the force of law
probably the main reason behind the domination of congress by the democrats for four decades until the mid 1990 is
the greatest source of presidential power is
politics and public opinion
presidents, even with great majorities of their own party in congress, experience difficulty in exercising legislative leadership because.
the president is unable to control congress, unlike a prime minister.
Andrew Jackson established the practice that the presidents veto can be used.
on policy grounds even when a bill may be constitutional
among the presidents who have had difficulty communicating with the public and have therefore encountered difficulty while in office are
johnson, nixon, george h. w. bush
the personal popularity of the president has its greatest effect on.
how congress treats his legislative proposals
the area in which the president is strongest and encounters the least congressional interference is
the decisive check on presidential authority in foreign policy is
in recent decades, all presidents have had to devote substantial amounts of their time to foreign affairs and to
during most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, appointments to the civil service were based primarily on.
a public official who decides to follow a course of action not specified in the law, but on that could be inferred from it, is most likely to be
the recruitment and retention policies of the civil service work to ensure that most bureaucrats have
an agency point of view
the reason legislative vetoes have been declared unconstitutional is that
any action having the force of law must be sent to the president for approval
the difference between a providentially and congressional oriented agency is that
providentially oriented agencies usually do not distribute benefits.
generally, government agencies prefer to
remain autonomous and independent of other agencies.
unlike members of parliament, members of congress can become involved in the details of lawmaking because.
congress is more internally decentralized and is more independent of the chief executive.
according to the original constitution, senators were to be elected by
the state legislatures.
the conservative coalition decreased in significance from the 1980sonward because
conservative southern democrats were replaced by republicans
a primary election is usually most influenced by
the individual candidates efforts
as conservative voters have more consistently supported the republican party and liberal voters have more consistently supported the democratic party, political deliberations have become increasingly
members tend to vote with their parties in congress because
members tend to share the ideologies of the party with which they are affiliated.
the purpose of a conference committee is to
resolve differences between house and senate versions of a bill
which of the following statements about the current cloture rule is correct.
it requires three fifths of the entire senate membership to sign a petition to move cloture.
for members who seek to mirror their constituents views, the principal difficulty is
the lack of clear and consistent policy positions from their district
one of the apparent manifestations of congressional weakness during the 1960s and early 1970s was
presidential refusal to spend appropriated money
each state determines how to cast its electoral college votes. today, the system adopted by most of the states is.
winner take all
when a presidential election is thrown into the house, each _____ casts one vote
president Lincoln justified his unprecedented use of the vague powers granted in article 2
conditions created by civil war.
the rule of propinquity states that
power tends to be wielded by people who are in the room where a decision is made.
the impact of the presidential race upon the outcome of congressional elections is usually
is quite strong with a popular presidential candidate accounting for the victories of numerous congressional candidates of his party
as a rule, presidential popularity tends to
decrease the longer a president is in office.
presidents experience great difficulty in planning a program. one factor that prevents a president from creating a comprehensive program is the
fact that most federal expenditures are beyond the presidents control
the proportion of measures submitted by the president to congress that are approved is
less than half
in seeking reelection, most presidents have been
one source for the expansion of presidential power has been
the presidents role in foreign affairs
political authority over the bureaucracy is
shared between the presidency and congress
the supreme courts current position on the regulatory power of federal agencies is that
congress can instruct an agency to make the decisions necessary to solve a policy problem
the reason the federal bureaucracy has not grown for over two decades is that
much federal work is handled indirectly by consultants and local governments
the civil service reform act of 1978 was designed to
allow the president more flexibility in recruiting for high level positions in the civil service
the political values of top level federal bureaucrats tend to be
more liberal than the average voter.
which of the following is true of an agency with a sense of mission
it can be resistant to direction from the president or congress
agencies become captured by interest groups because
agencies need strong allies in the private sector to lobby on their behalf.
removing an individual from office before his or her term has expired is called
which of the following is a major strength of a parliamentary democratic system when compared to a presidential system
simplifies accountability to the electorate
both politics and policies differ between the American and European versions of democracy. the form of democracy developed in the united states is a product of its constitutional system and the
values of the American people
in a parliamentary system, the chief executive is usually chosen by the
legislature majority party
the goal of the American revolutions was
if the united states were operating today under the articles of confederation, a problem like pollution affecting the environment would be handled by
the individual states.
under the great compromise, senators were chosen by
the constitution failed to outlaw slaver because
southern support was essential to the adoption of the document
the nature of the amendment process has probably kept the amendments added to the constitutions
relatively few in number
the power of popular majorities is limited by
today, many people think of equality differently that the founders, they no believe that the role of the government is to
reduce differences in wealth
according to beard, the chief factor motivation the framers of the constitution was
economic self interest
perhaps the most obvious effect of federalism in the united states has been to
mobilize political activity
the civil war led to the expansion of the power of
the national government
for the founders, federalism was a device to
a federal grant designed for a specific purpose designed by a federal law is called
a categorical grant.
the doctrine of dual federalism grew out of a debate on the subject of
if you were a governor or mayor, you would probably be most likely to favor
distributional formulas have created
rivalry among states
the efforts of republicans is congress since 1994 to pass on o the states many federal functions is referred to as
in a representative democracy
all of these above.
a liberal democracy is a government in which
personal rights and freedoms are given first priority
the liberties that the colonists fought to protect were based upon
natural rights created by god.
the reason that a movement emerged to revise the articles of confederation was Because
the nation appeared to be in danger, with internal order being lost
some historians have called the constitution a repudiation of the American revolution. the probable reason for this belief is that
the constitution created a central government with strong powers.
the concept of separation of powers involves
dividing up the functions of the government
giving sovereign power to the nation government and residual power to the states is referred to as
the framers of the constitution believed that two types of majorities were essential on important questions. they are majorities of
voters and states.
generally, the anti federalists felt that the government created by the constitution was
too strong and too centralized.
the constitution is based on the philosophical belief that
people are selfish but their ambition can be harnessed.
the ratification debates about the constitution focused on the question of
one of the things that has kept local governments independent of the national government is
the commitment of Americans to the ideal of local government.
a government is not federal unless its state and local units
exist independently of the preferences of the national government and make some decisions on their own.
the authority left to the states under the tenth amendment amounts to
all powers not delegated to the federal government by the constitution or prohibited by it to the states.
the civil war settled the issue that
the national government derived its sovereignty from the people.
the supreme court, in McCullough v. Maryland, decided in 1819 that
congress could exercise certain powers even though they were not specifically mentioned in the constitution.
the doctrine of nullification refers to the
authority of the states to declare a federal law void.
in the 1960s and 19070s, federal grants to states were increasingly based on
what federal officials perceived to be important states needs.
the term intergovernmental lobby refers to lobbying activities by
stat and local officials at the national government.
the difference between a mandate and a condition of aid is that
a mandate stipulates a certain action independent of federal funding, while a condition of aid stipulates how federal funds will be spent.
natural rights doctrine
supremacy of national laws.
coalition of majorites
authority to tax a persons personal income.
authority to establish a national bank
authority to pass an ex post facto law
authority to regulate the use of land
authority to regulate interstate commerce
over the past several decades, the political party benefiting from the gender gap or women distinctive policy preferences, has
changed from republicans to democrats
the constitution created a representative form of government. according to the intentions of the framers, the government should follow public opinion.
only to the extent that it agrees with certain substantive goals
the reason religion has an impact upon political attitudes is that
religion conveys a way of looking at human nature and human affairs
the national press plays the tole of gatekeeper. this means that it can
influence what subjects become national political issues
comparing the print media and the electronic media, we find that
electronic media are more competitive and more strictly regulated
electronic journalism has contributed to the decline in party loyalties because
politicians develop personal followings independent of party structure.
the mass media is not a true mirror of reality because
there is a process of selection, of editing, and of emphasis.
one explanation of the differences between American and European political parties is that
federalism promotes decentralization of both political authority and parties.
the current democratic and republican parties can be characterized as
autonomous, independent units organized at the local level
the text argues that the central problem of political parties today is
appealing to moderate voters despite ideological activeists
unlike those in the united states. interest groups have remained weak in Europe because.
political parties have stayed strong in Europe
information is an important resource available to interest groups because
members of congress must take positions on a large number of issues and need up to the minute information.
according to the text, the main reason people do not participate in politics
politics offers few rewards.
in voting, the average person behaves by
making retrospective decision on issues.
the increased reliance on the mass media by candidates has resulted in
an emphasis upon the personal qualities of candidates.
in most presidential elections, a majority of the voters deiced whom they will vote for
after the conventions
an electoral realignment occurs when
votes choose sides in new patterns.
between the two major parties in America there are
large policy differences among activists, and much smaller ones among rank and file.
mass media probably have the least effect on
how people vote in elections
people are less likely to take their cues from the media on
matters that affect them personally
funding for congressional elections comes from
private sources only
a simple random sample means that
every person has a equal chances of being selected.
a conservative today might oppose all of the following except
according to careful study, the news media treat opposing candidates
a major structural bias of television news is
covering events that can be presented visually
one reason for the decline in party identification is
the proportionally larger number young voters.
the nations convention of the republican party nominates
two candidates for public office.
which of these groups is more likely to cote
older people rather than younger people
typical, the candidate with the greatest advantage in a election is
the incumbent, who benefits from retrospective voting.
by most evidence in the 1990s party politics seemed to be
poor voters, contrary to popular belief, more often support republican candidates because.
the poor include man elderly, retired persons who are traditionally republican.
the growth of numerous public interest lobbies in the 1960s was an example of interest groups formed as a result of
the enlargement of governmental responsibilities.
in general, the influence of radio and television on political beliefs has
reinforced existing beliefs but probably not changed them
the value of information, the power of the lobbyist, and thus the success of interest groups are greatest when the issue.
is fairly narrow
soft money refers to unrestricted donations which can be given
to national parties for party building.
one major effect of ticket splitting in national elections is an
divide government, in which on party controls the presidency, the other congress.
in order to win the party nomination, candidates need to appear
liberal if democrats, conservative if republican.
in an off year election, the presidents party almost always
loses seats in congress.
registration requirements have
reduced the number of people voting.
voting rights act of 1965
made the literacy test illegal
when a voter decides to support a candidate ion the basis of the persons past record, such as vote is called
the benefit of television to campaigns for national office is that it not only reaches more people but also
is the information sources most people trust
today a person wanting to win a election will most often seek the support of
a personal following
the text concludes that elections
are often significant in producing change.
the reason for greater participation by American in civic associations is
their sense of political efficacy and civic duty.
national party conventions
selects party vice presidential candidates
state presidential primaries
selects party delegates
selects U.S president
national party committees
selects national party chairman
select party candidates for the U.S. Congress.