CRJ 130 Final Guide
CRJ 130 Gutierrez
Final study guide
A form of power that stresses the application or threat of physical force is known as _______
In a highly authoritarian prison,__________
treatment goals are less important
If a shakedown were to occur in a prison, the _________would give the directive.
___________are employees who are directly concerned with furthering the institution’s goals and are in direct contact with clients.
The warden’s job security rests on her or his ability to ___________
Run the institution efficiently
Negotiations are central to prisoner control because correctional officers cannot have total control over the inmates.
The relationship between staff and prisoners which focuses on material goods and written correspondence is one of exchange.
There are a range of punishments given to inmates for disciplinary reasons when they are_____
One such punishment is erasing good time credit.
According to the authors, a majority of correctional officers are from __________
One primary incentive for being a corrections officer is the security of a civil service job.
Over the past 40 years, federal courts, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and affirmative action programs have dramatically changed the racial and gender composition of the correctional officer force
Correctional officers sometimes feel that no one cares what happens inside the walls, that they’re doing time as well as the inmates, and that their work accounts for nothing on the outside.
Classification may occur during transfer to another institution, in preparation for release and after an in-mate encounters problems.
Psychological program services frequently take the form of group or individual counseling sessions rather than intensive therapy.
Classification committees often revert to stereotypes rather than diagnostic criteria in assignment inmates.
They often recognize the following stereo-types when classifying inmates—members of racial gangs, members of ethnic gangs, and predators who demand things.
A majority of inmates under correctional authority have a history of mental health problems, diabetes problems and HIV/AIDS problems.
The term ________refers to the treatment of the mind. Prisoner education is more available and often times required for juvenile offenders
The most powerful new studies of correctional rehabilitation programs try to express their effectiveness using a________.
____________ is the court case that established a right to medical treatment while incarcerated.
Estelle v. Gamble
With the increase of the prison population the percentage of parolees has __________.
Parole is also known as __________.
Sir Walter Crofton built on Alexander Maconochie’s idea of __________
requiring prisoners to earn early release.
In the wake of the “tough on crime” movement over the past three dec-ades, the number of parolees has ___________
Those serving on a parole board are appointed by the ___________
In the autonomous model, there is a parole board,.......
an independent decision-making authority that is organizationally close enough to the department to be sensitive to institutional and correctional needs.
An inmate’s eligibility for release into community supervision depends on requirements set by__________________
the law and sentence status
Discretionary release places great faith in the ability of the parole board members to____________
predict future offender behavior.
Most parole boards cite an inmate’s progress in __________
self-improvement pro-grams as one criterion for release.
Prior criminal record, attitudes toward victims and history of community adjustment are _______________
release criteria used by the parole board
The goal of community corrections is to __________________
prepare offenders for reentry into society gradually through the reintegration model.
Parole is often viewed as a_________
Dirty drug tests, the loss of a job, and an arrest for a new crime are likely to lead to a __________
Three forces influence the newly released offender’s adjustment to free society
They include the parole board, the parole bureaucracy, and the experiences of the offender.
When parole officers play the role of cop, they can_________________________
restrict many aspects of the parolee’s life and initiate revocation for violations.
Requirements and rules designed to aid readjustment to society and control parolee movement are called ___________
conditions of release.
___________are not a high-priority need for many offenders released from prison
Marriage and home life
Research has shown that post-release supervision is____________.
limited in its effectiveness
The procedures of juvenile corrections incorporate ___________.
informality and discretionary decision making.
Since 1994, the juvenile crime rate has ____________
The first juvenile court was established in ________
The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony believed .....
the child was evil and in need of discipline
The case that required a standard of “beyond a doubt” for delinquency matters is ___________
In Re Winship.
The case that specified the “essentials” required by Kent—notice, hearing, counsel, and cross-examination is_____________.
In Re Gault
The first and basic “essentials of due process” required by juvenile offenders was determined in __________.
Kent v. US
Factors in a juvenile’s history that indicate a high risk of delinquency are________________________.
behavior problems in elementary school, drug dealing, and antisocial parents.
The most common sanction a juvenile receives is _____________.
The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1988 requires states to determine _________________________.
whether the proportion of minorities in confinement exceeds their proportion in the population.
The public today calls for a ___________approach for juveniles.
Over the past quarter century, the incarceration rate has ____________.
The region within the United States that has the lowest incarceration rate is the _________.
The state with the highest incarceration rate among all the states is_________.
Eighty percent of California’s re-commitments stemmed from ___________.
Predictive studies calculate that the future prison population of the United States is likely to _______________.
A correctional officer’s ability to do their job is impacted by________________.
prison overcrowding in many ways
There is an increased potential for violence,......
it puts a strain on staff morale, and limits the ability to run programs.
Overcrowded prisons may also violate provisions of the _____________.
For two decades, the crime rate in the United States has been __________.
According to the authors, the most costly correctional resource is___________.
Some overseers think a hardening of public attitudes toward criminals is reflected in _____________.
Ethnicity relates to a person’s________,__________,____________.
language, religion, and group traditions.
After 1980, prison surpassed college as a place for______________.
young African American men
One in three African American men are________________.
under correctional supervision
Patterns of disproportionate representation in the criminal justice system start with_________.
The fact that African Americans and Latinos are subjected to the criminal justice system at considerably higher rates than other ethnic and racial groups is _________.
Self-report studies show that most people have _____________.
committed a crime
A consequence of the view of differential criminality would be........
that the view is vulnerable to charges of racism and it would mean the creation of a ‘criminal class’ of people who are dangerous.
The victim’s perception of the race of the offender differs from _________________.
the race of those arrested
Many observers believe that the relationship between racism and the criminal justice system is____________.
Those with a felony conviction are not allowed to ____.
This is referred to as _______________.
Recent sociological studies have demonstrated that employers are both...................
hesitant to hire young men who have been in prison and are more likely to do a background check for young African American men
The problem of dis-proportionality is more complicated if the problem is_________________.
not racist people but disadvantageous rules and practices
Examination of self-report studies of criminality has often revealed that ............
African American and white youths admit to similar participation in criminal and deviant activity
It took approximately 30 minutes for Angel Diaz to die by _______________________.
lethal injection in Florida
The term retribution refers to the belief that one who takes another’s life deserves____________.
punishment equal to the victim’s fate
The term deterrence refers to idea that the punishment of execution will prevent others from engaging in ______________.
violent criminal activity
According to the author, until the mid-1700s criminal punishment in Europe and American colonies focused on ______.
the offender’s body....It also focused on mutilation, whipping, and dismemberment.
Analysts argue that public opinion for the death penalty is _______________.
To en-sure thorough deliberation before imposing the death sentence, legislatures enacted a ____________.
In ____________ the Supreme Court ruled that executing the mentally retarded is unconstitutional.
Atkins v. Virginia
In ____________ the Supreme Court ruled that the insane should not be executed.
Ford v. Wainwright
The case of _______________ held that potential jurors who object to the death penalty cannot be automatically excluded from jury service in capital cases.
Witherspoon v. Illinois
Because of the heinous nature of the crime, several states have sought to enact laws permitting use of the death penalty for adults who ___________.
rape a child
According to opponents of capital punishment, evidence the death penalty deters violent crime is ________.
Opponents of the death penalty believe that it is applied in a _____________________.
Use of the death penalty will continue to be a major source of debate among________,________,__________.
legislators, scholars, and correctional officials
Aggravated and mitigating circumstances are looked at during the sentencing phase of a _______________.
People in poor communities tend to tell researchers that they........
want for people not to go to prison
As a philosophy, community justice is based on the pursuit of justice that goes beyond the three traditional tasks such as ________,_______,________.
apprehension, conviction, and punishment
While traditional justice focuses on processing cases, community justice focuses on______________.
solving crime problems
The traditional criminal justice system is concerned almost exclusively with_____________.
Traditional criminal justice is ____________.
An innovative neighborhood-based approach for reducing crime and increasing public safety is _____________________.
The community justice approach does not combine _________ and ___________.
crime control and rehabilitation
Community Justice approach.....
is a philosophy of justice, strategy of justice, and a series of justice programs.
Citizen advisory boards help __________ and ___________.
identify and prioritize local crime problems
In the 1960s, most people agreed that the primary mission of corrections was __________.
Corrections lacks ___________.
a clear mission
The history of corrections has taught us that we......
often injure the people we try to help
A structural problem with corrections is that the system depends on............
significant factors outside of its control
There are two goals with corrections staff—.....
attracting the right people to work in corrections and motivating them to remain once they are employed
The most extraordinary health problem in contemporary corrections often based on mandatory sentencing, determinate sentencing and truth in sentencing is______.