What are the characteristic belifs associated with American political culture?
liberty, equality of opportunity, individulalism, and political equality
According to the pluralist theorists, what describe the American political system
The public interest is normally served in the U.S. through a process of bargaining and compromise; Organized interest groups fairly shape the public agenda by broadly representing the interest of Americans
Democratic theory inclues:
"one person, one vote"
What are core values of the U.S. political culture?
legal equality, political equality freedom of religion, and freedom of speech
What are the basic fuctons common to all national governments?
public servies, national defense, preserving order, and socializing young citizens
Which characteristic of American politics is concerned with the rights of the minority?
the Bill of righs tuarantee of civil liberties
Under America's first consitution, the Articles of Confederation:
the state government had more power than the national government
Who was the "principle architect" of the Constitution?
The Three-Fifths Compromise at the Constitutional Convention:
provided a formula by which slaves would be counted for apportioning the House of Representatives
A bill of attainer stops:
any law passed by a legislature that punishes an individual without a trial
The idea of limiting the rold of government to protecting "life, liberty, and property" is generally attributed to:
Checks and balances:
Congress overrides a president's veto; the Supreme Court declares a law unconstitutional
A law goes into effect declaring that a business practice thathas been legal in the past will be illegal in the future, and the law is made retroactive. Why is this law unconstitutional?
Ex post facto law
Which plan proposed at the Constitutional Convention called for a bicameral legislature with one chamber having membersfrom states calculated propotionally based upon population and the other having two members per state?
Which form of fiscal federalism allows the states the broadest financial discretion?
The Constitution grants Congress the power to establish post offices and post roads. This is an example of:
In a confederation:
power is held at the regional level, with the central government exercising only such influence as the regional governments give it
In the organization of goverment, the principle of federalism is illustrated best by the:
representation system for electing senators
The fiscal relationship between the national and state governments invovles complex relationships. Which is not likely to be favored by state governments?
The system of federalism that allowed states to do most of the fundamental governing from 1789 to 1937 was:
The case of McCulloch v Maryland ruled that:
The implied powers in Article I of the Constitution allowed Congress to create a nationally chartered bank; Neither states nor the federal government could tax one another
"Dual Federalism" refers to the fact that:
the Constitution provides two layers of government in the nation- the national and the state
The power of the national government to regulate interstae commerce was expanded in the landmark case of:
Gibbons v. Ogden
The notion that when state and federal laws conflict, the national laws will prevail is:
the Supremacy clause
What best describes the Bible's view on government?
Christians should pray for their leaders
Which theory best describes how the US government was extablished?
Social contract theory
The Antifederalists are best described as:
A state or nation must have which characteristics in order to be recognized as such?
Clearly defined borders, sovereignty, and population
The effect of Shay's Rebellion on attendance by delegates at the planned Constitutional Convention of 1787 was to
encourage attendance by delegates fearing the collapse of state governments
Seperation of power and federalism were two key principles in the framing of the US Constitution and they are related in that each
involves a system of checks and balances in which power is dispersed
Madison's confidence in the usefulness of separation of powers as expressed in Federalist 51 rested on the assumption that:
ambition would counteract each other
Which is a power shared by the federal government and state governments?
tax personal income, establish courts and charter banks
Enumerated powers are those given to:
the national government
After reviewing Charles A. Beard's economic interpretation of the US Constitution, political theorists have found
very little support for it
If you are legally married in one state, you will also be considered legally married by the other 49 states because of:
the Full Faith and Credit clause
How many justices are there on the Supreme Court?
"Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" were
Jefferson's variation of commonly listed rights
The form of democracy that best describes the form used by the US is
The Framers of the Constitution were influenced by:
John Loce's Second Treatise on Government, the Protestant Reformation, The Magna Carta, and the Mayflower Compact
When a child's parents both identify strongly with the same political party, the child will most likely:
identify with the parents' party
The term "party machine" usually refers to:
a local party organization that is tightly disciplined and well staffed and relies on patronage to create party loyalty
Which demographic groups has voted most consistently for the Democratic Party in national elections over the last three decades?
The theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in government, resulting in healhy democratic compromise and balance, is called:
The Bipartisan Campain Reform Act of 2002 (McCain-Feingold) did:
banned soft money donations to national parties
Citizens who believe that their votes will have no effect on the outcome of an election have a:
low level of political efficacy
Which is a type of primary election that requires registration as a party affiliate to vote?
An election in which there is a significant shift in the bases of electoral support from one political party to another is called a:
A major difference between political parties and interest groups is that:
political parties seek to gain control of government, while interest groups seek to influence public policy
The free rider problem occurs when
people benefit from an interest group's efforts without making any contribution
Which describes the result in a winner-take-all, single-member-district plurality system?
The candidate who receives the most votes in the election wins
The term "split-ticket voting" is most accurately described as:
voting for candidates of different parties on the same ballot
When none of the presidential candidates receives a majority of the votes in the Electoral College, the winner is chosen by the
House of Representatives
When contributing to congressional campaigns, political action committees are most likely to contribute to:
incumbents of both major parties
A referendum can best be described as a vote to
determine whether citizens support an action by their state legislature
Which most accurately describes media coverage of elections?
Network new coverage is usually dominated by reporters who offer relatively shrot sound bites from the candidates
It is often said that Americans are a nation of
Presidential races differ from congrssional races in that the former generally
are more competitive
The reason Americans participate in civic associations more frequently than do citizens of other countries is:
their sense of political efficacy and civic duty
Which interest group is known to be the largest in membership size?
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)
What methods do interest groups employ to influence policymaking?
Class action lawsuits allow interest groups to sue in the name of a larger section of the public; interest groups make almost all their PAC contributions to incumbents rather than challengers; and lobbyists use their policy expertise to make themselves indispensable to politicians
Turnout is the highest in what type of elections?
general election for the president
Voters in presidential primaries are likely to be:
What has decreased voter turnout over the years?
expansion of those who are eligible to vote
What requires citizens to have the opportunity to register to vote?
the Motor Voter Act
What is true about the Electoral College System?
It is possible to win the electoral vote but lose the popular vote; a majority of electors is required to win; candidates have historically focused campaigns on large states; and many candidates today focuse their campaigns on swing states
The main loophole to the McCain-Feingold legislation is:
A primary is
either open or closed
What best describes the relationship between the media and trust in government?
as the availability of news has increased, trust in government has decreased
What best describes the impact of the internet on politics?
citizens have more access to information
What can be accurately stated about sound bites?
presidential candidates use them to state a theme of their campaign; they are 15 sec or shorter; they are the way many citizens learn about their candidates; and they are used by advertisers as well as political leaders
What would older Americans be more likely to support than young Americans?
protection of Social Security
What is true of an open primary?
they allow cross over voting
Obstacles to third parties success include:
winner-take-all rule; lack of funding from interest groups; inability to participate in the debate; and lack of ballot access
A two-party system differs from a multiparty system in that it
encourages moderation in policymaking and discourages change
What has led to ticket splitting in recent elections?
What is the most common form of political participation in the US?
voting in a presidential election
Which type of poll is most likely to be used by the media to predict the outcome of an election?
an exit poll
Liberals are likely to support:
freedom of choice in abortions; government regulation; increased taxes on the rich; and social welfare program
The "gender gap" refers to the idea that women:
are more likely to vote for Democrats than are men
What is argued by James Madison in The Federalist paper number 10?
A system of republican representation helps to limit the excesses of factionalism
The process knwon as front-loading refers to
the tendency of states to choose and early date on the primary calender
used by Democrats to ensure a voice for pary officials and for particular constituencies
What contributes to the success of incumbent members of Congress in election campaigns?
incumbents raise more campain funds; tend to understand national issues better; are usually better known; and often sit on committees.
The voting patterns of members of Congress correlate most strongly with
their political party affiliation
A member of the House of Representatives who wishes to be influential in the House itself would most likely seek a place on which of the following committess?
What is generally true of the gerrymandering of congressional districts?
it creates districts that favor one political party over another
What is most likely to determine a candidate's chance of getting elected to Congress?
their incumbency status
What would be an attractive committee for a member of Congress from Montana looking to serve his or her constituency?
A senator can effectively prevent the Senate from voting by
Which of the following ends debate in the Senate?
Most of the time, members of Congress vote with
_____ decides whether a president should be impeached
What is correct about revenue bills?
they must originate in the House
Where is the real work of Congress don?
in the committees in both houses
Under the original US Constitution, members of the Senate were selected by
Article I, Section 8 of the US Constitution confers on Congress all of the following powers:
collect taxes, declare war, establish courts, and regulate commerce
In vetoing a bill, what does the president do?
rejects only a part of the bill; prevents any further action on the bill; sends the bill back to conference committee; and decides the bill's constitutionality
What is true of a presidential veto of a piece of legislation?
it is rarely overridden by Congress
Congress can override a presidential veto of legislation
with a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress
What presidential appointment require Senate confirmation?
Secretary of State
A president is most likely to gain public support for a public policy proposal by
appealing to the public directly via the broadcast media
What is true about the president as commander-in-chief?
the president decides if and when to use weapons of mass destruction in times of war
What are the powers of the president?
conducting displomatic relations, negotiating treaties, and appointing cabinet officers
Who is in the line of presidential succession?
Secretary of State, Secretary of the Interior, Attorney General and Speaker of the House
Invocation of the War Powers Act of 1973 would be most important in determining
the nature of the commitment of the US Marines to a peace-keeping role in South Korea
The Framers solved the problem of how to elect the president by
creating the Electoral College
Regarding terms of office, the pattern among most early presidents was to
serve two terms and then leave office
When voters choose as members of Congress people of the same party as an incoming president, they probably do so for what reason?
as a result of the unpopularity of the outgoing president
A bill is passed to the president for action while Congress is still in session. After ten days he has still not approved it. What happens to the bill?
It becomes a law
The constitutional duty of the vice president is to
preside over the Senate
What is true about the relationship between regulatory agencies and the industries they regulate?
agency employees are often recruited from the regulated industry; agencies of ten rely on support from regulated industries in making budget requests before Congress; an agency's relationship with a regulated industry may change when a new president takes office; and agency employees often are employed by the regulated industry once they leave the agency
The Pendleton Civil Service Act is significant because
it created the federal civil service and prescribed that the hiring of civil servants be based on merit
Bureaucracies are often criticized as being undemocratic because
they are not directly accountable to the people
An important tool Congress uses to influence the bureaucracy is
requiring agency heads to routinely appear before congressional committees
Implementation of public policy is most successful when
the goals of the policy and the authority of the implementers are clear
Examples of independent regulatory agencies:
The Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, The Federal Reserve Board, and the Securities and Exchange Commission
What results from an iron triangle relationship?
a cooperative relationship among a special interest group, a bureaucraticagency, and Congress
In recent years, presidential policy with respect to the federal bureaucracy has been to
favor a downsizing and reorganizing of the work force
The Pentagon paid $91 for screws that 3 cents at a hardware store. This is an example of which problem inherent in bureaucracies?
One complication surrounding the federal bureaucracy is the fact that the Constitution