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agatton
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70684
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APP - Digestive
Updated:
2011-03-04 14:18:34
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WCCMT
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Ch 24 review questions 95 of 100
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  1. 1) The type of chemical reaction catalyzed by the digestive enzymes in the digestive juices of the alimentary canal is:
    A) oxidation.
    B) reduction.
    C) hydrolysis.
    D) dehydration.
    E) phosphorylation.
    Answer: C) hydrolysis.
  2. 2) Which of the following would be considered an accessory organ of the digestive system?
    A) pancreas.
    B) stomach.
    C) esophagus.
    D) large intestine.
    E) small intestine.
    Answer: A) pancreas.
  3. 3) Which of the following lists the tubing in the correct order of food movement?
    A) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, esophagus
    B) oropharynx, laryngopharynx, esophagus, stomach, pyloric valve
    C) laryngopharynx, oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, pyloric valve
    D) oropharynx, laryngopharynx, esophagus, pyloric valve, stomach
    E) nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach
    Answer: B) oropharynx, laryngopharynx, esophagus, stomach, pyloric valve
  4. 4) The regular contractions of the muscularis that push food through the entire gastrointestinal tract are known as:
    A) segmentations.
    B) haustral churning.
    C) peristalsis.
    D) pendular movements.
    E) migratory motility complex.
    Answer: C) peristalsis.
  5. 5) Peristalsis occurs during:
    A) the voluntary stage of deglutition.
    B) the pharyngeal stage of deglutition.
    C) the esophageal stage of deglutition.
    D) mastication.
    E) Both B and C are correct.
    Answer: C) the esophageal stage of deglutition.
  6. 6) The muscularis of most organs of the gastrointestinal tract consists of two layers of smooth muscle except in the:
    A) duodenum.
    B) ileum.
    C) sigmoid colon.
    D) stomach.
    E) ascending colon.
    Answer: D) stomach.
  7. 7) Intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells of the stomach is required for:
    A) activation of pepsin.
    B) buffering of HCl.
    C) complete gastric emptying.
    D) absorption of vitamin B12 element.
    E) stimulation of mixing waves.
    Answer: D) absorption of vitamin B12 element.
  8. 8) The folds of the gastric mucosa are called:
    A) microvilli.
    B) circular folds.
    C) gastric pits.
    D) villi.
    E) rugae.
    Answer: E) rugae.
  9. 9) The pyloric sphincter is located at the junction of the:
    A) esophagus and stomach.
    B) stomach and duodenum.
    C) ileum and cecum.
    D) esophagus and larynx.
    E) sigmoid colon and rectum.
    Answer: B) stomach and duodenum.
  10. 10) Bicarbonate ions diffuse into blood capillaries of the stomach after a meal because:
    A) they are being generated from amino acids absorbed by the gastric mucosa.
    B) they are being exchanged for hydrogen ions that enter the stomach lumen.
    C) they are being exchanged for chloride ions that enter the stomach lumen.
    D) they are being exchanged for potassium ions that enter the stomach lumen.
    E) carbon dioxide is generated as pepsin hydrolyzes proteins, and it is converted to bicarbonate ion.
    Answer: C) they are being exchanged for chloride ions that enter the stomach lumen.
  11. 11) Which of the following has the lowest pH?
    A) saliva.
    B) gastric juice.
    C) pancreatic juice.
    D) bile.
    E) intestinal juice.
    Answer: B) gastric juice.
  12. 12) Which of the following occurs during the cephalic phase of gastric digestion?
    A) Chemoreceptors detect as change in the pH of gastric juice.
    B) Stretch receptors detect distention of the stomach.
    C) Chemoreceptors detect fatty acids in the duodenum.
    D) Sight, smell, thought, or taste of food trigger parasympathetic impulses.
    E) CCK is secreted by enteroendocrine cells.
    Answer: D) Sight, smell, thought, or taste of food trigger parasympathetic impulses.
  13. 13) Gastric emptying is stimulated by ALL of the following EXCEPT:
    A) distention of the stomach.
    B) gastrin.
    C) CCK.
    D) partially digested proteins.
    E) the vagus nerve.
    Answer: C) CCK.
  14. 14. Salivary glands include
    A. Parotid glands
    B. Submandibular glands
    C. Sublingual glands
    D. All answers are correct
    Answer: D. All answers are correct
  15. 15. A hormone produced by cells of the pyloric portion of the stomach is
    A. Secretin
    B. Enterogastrone
    C. Insulin
    D. Gastrin
    E. Glucagon
    Answer: D. Gastrin
  16. 16.Salivary secretions
    A. Aid in chewing and swallowing
    B. Initiate digestion of starches
    C. Are needed for tasting
    D. Moisten and lubricate food
    E. Function in all of the above ways.
    Answer: E. Function in all of the above ways.
  17. 17. An enzyme which digests carbohydrates is
    A. Trypsin
    B. Pepsin
    C. Mucin
    D. Lipase
    E. Amylase.
    Answer: E. Amylase.
  18. 18. The salivary enzyme amylase ((ptylin) functions to digest
    A. Proteins
    B. Fats
    C. Carbohydrates
    D. Proteins
    E. Nucleic acids.
    Answer: C. Carbohydrates
  19. 19. The primary digestive function of the stomach is
    A. Carbolytic
    B. Lipolytic
    C. Proteolytic
    D. Saccarolytic
    E. All of the answers are correct.
    Answer: C. Proteolytic
  20. 20) In areas of the gastrointestinal tract specialized for absorption of nutrients, the type of epithelium seen in the mucosa is:
    A) simple squamous.
    B) stratified squamous.
    C) transitional.
    D) simple columnar.
    E) pseudostratified ciliated columnar.
    Answer: D) simple columnar.
  21. 21) The small intestine is attached to the posterior abdominal wall by a fold of the peritoneum called the:
    A) mesocolon.
    B) mesentery.
    C) falciform ligament.
    D) taeniae coli.
    E) greater omentum.
    Answer: B) mesentery.
  22. 22) Which of the following lists the tubing in the correct order of food movement?
    A) pyloric valve, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, ileocecal valve
    B) pyloric valve, jejunum, duodenum, ileum, ileocecal valve
    C) ileocecal valve, ileum, jejunum, duodenum, pyloric valve
    D) ileocecal valve, ileum, jejunum, duodenum, pyloric valve
    E) pyloric valve, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocecal valve
    Answer: E) pyloric valve, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocecal valve
  23. 23) During swallowing, the nasal cavity is closed off by the soft palate and the:
    A) epiglottis.
    B) uvula.
    C) palatine tonsils.
    D) fauces.
    E) tongue.
    Answer: B) uvula.
  24. 24) The process of mastication results is:
    A) passage of food from the oral cavity into the esophagus.
    B) removal of pathogens from partially digested food by MALT tissues.
    C) mechanical mixing of food with saliva and shaping of food into a bolus.
    D) sudden movement of colonic contents into the rectum.
    E) passage of feces from the anus.
    Answer: C) mechanical mixing of food with saliva and shaping of food into a bolus.
  25. 25) Which of the following is an example of mechanical digestion?
    A) glycolysis
    B) defecation
    C) oxidation reduction
    D) mastication
    E) hydrolysis
    Answer: D) mastication
  26. 26) Partially digested food is usually passed from the stomach to the small intestine about how long after consumption?
    A) an hour or less
    B) 2-4 hours
    C) 6-8 hours
    D) 10-12 hours
    E) 24 hours
    Answer: B) 2-4 hours
  27. 27) Increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system will:
    A) increase production of all hydrolytic enzymes by abdominal organs.
    B) increase only production of those digestive juices rich in buffers.
    C) have no effect on the digestive system.
    D) decrease production of digestive juices.
    E) increase movement of food through the alimentary canal.
    Answer: D) decrease production of digestive juices.
  28. 28) Which of the following is NOT produced by the acini of the pancreas?
    A) amylase
    B) lipase
    C) carboxypeptidase
    D) somatostatin
    E) elastase
    Answer: D) somatostatin
  29. 29) The functions of the gallbladder include:
    A) production of bile.
    B) storage and concentration of bile.
    C) formation of urea.
    D) secretin of cholecystokinin.
    E) Both A and B are correct.
    Answer: B) storage and concentration of bile.
  30. 30) The function of bile is to:
    A) emulsify fats.
    B) transport fats through the blood.
    C) hydrolyze fats.
    D) actively transport fats through epithelial membranes.
    E) All of these are correct.
    Answer: A) emulsify fats.
  31. 31) The common bile duct is formed by the union of the:
    A) right and left hepatic ducts.
    B) cystic and pancreatic ducts.
    C) common hepatic and cystic ducts.
    D) all bile capillaries.
    E) pancreatic and accessory ducts.
    Answer: C) common hepatic and cystic ducts.
  32. 32) The greenish color of bile is the result of the presence of breakdown products of:
    A) hemoglobin.
    B) urea.
    C) starch.
    D) the B vitamins.
    E) fats.
    Answer: A) hemoglobin.
  33. 33) Gallstones are usually made of crystallized:
    A) glucose.
    B) bilirubin.
    C) cholesterol.
    D) chyme.
    E) fat soluble vitamins.
    Answer: C) cholesterol.
  34. 34) Without functioning hepatocytes, protein catabolism is a toxic process due to:
    A) production of ammonia.
    B) excessive HCl production.
    C) buildup of the parts of amino acids remaining after deamination.
    D) clogging of bile canaliculi with denatured proteins.
    E) increased fluid volume.
    Answer: A) production of ammonia.
  35. 35) The liver produces urea to:
    A) detoxify ammonia produced via deamination of proteins.
    B) keep bile in an inactive form until it reaches the small intestine.
    C) convert into glucose when blood glucose is low.
    D) store iron.
    E) bind to ingested poisons to detoxify them.
    Answer: A) detoxify ammonia produced via deamination of proteins.
  36. 36) The major stimulus for secretion of secretin is:
    A) the sight and aroma of food.
    B) entry of a bolus into the esophagus.
    C) CCK.
    D) distention of the stomach.
    E) entry of acid chyme into the small intestine.
    Answer: E) entry of acid chyme into the small intestine.
  37. 37) The difference between the effects of secretin and the effects of CCK on the pancreas is that:
    A) secretin stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice, while CCK inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice.
    B) secretin stimulates the acini of the pancreas, while CCK stimulates the pancreatic islets.
    C) secretin stimulates alpha cells, while CCK stimulates beta cells.
    D) secretin causes dilation of the pancreatic duct, while CCK causes constriction of the duct.
    E) secretin stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate, while CCK inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes.
    Answer: E) secretin stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate, while CCK inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes.
  38. 38) The hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin would result in the production of:
    A) fatty acids and glycerol.
    B) monosaccharides.
    C) peptides.
    D) nucleotides.
    E) dextrin.
    Answer: C) peptides.
  39. 39) Specific disaccharides are hydrolyzed by enzymes found in:
    A) gastric juice.
    B) intestinal juice.
    C) saliva.
    D) pancreatic juice.
    E) bile.
    Answer: B) intestinal juice.
  40. 40) The products of the hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by carboxypeptidase are:
    A) amino acids.
    B) glucose and fructose.
    C) dextrins.
    D) nitrogenous bases.
    E) fatty acids and monoglycerides.
    Answer: A) amino acids.
  41. 41) Most absorption of nutrients occurs in the:
    A) mouth.
    B) transverse colon.
    C) stomach.
    D) small intestine.
    E) rectum
    Answer: D) small intestine.
  42. 42) Monosaccharides enter the capillaries of the villi from epithelial cells by:
    A) primary active transport.
    B) facilitated diffusion.
    C) simple diffusion.
    D) secondary active transport linked to sodium ion transport.
    E) emulsification.
    Answer: B) facilitated diffusion.
  43. 43) Glucose is transported into epithelial cells of the villi via:
    A) secondary active transport coupled to active transport of sodium ions.
    B) secondary active transport coupled to active transport of galactose.
    C) facilitated diffusion.
    D) primary active transport.
    E) pinocytosis.
    Answer: A) secondary active transport coupled to active transport of sodium ions.
  44. 44) The primary chemical digestion in the large intestine results from the action of:
    A) the continued action of pancreatic juice.
    B) bacterial enzymes.
    C) bilirubin.
    D) hydrochloric acid.
    E) fat soluble vitamins.
    Answer: B) bacterial enzymes.
  45. 45) The appendix is attached to the:
    A) left lobe of the liver.
    B) gallbladder.
    C) cecum.
    D) rectum.
    E) splenic flexure.
    Answer: C) cecum.
  46. 46) Which of the following lists the tubing in the correct order of food movement?
    A) descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon, sigmoid colon
    B) ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon
    C) sigmoid colon, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon
    D) ascending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon
    E) sigmoid colon, descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon
    Answer: B) ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon
  47. 47) The large intestine absorbs mostly:
    A) amino acids.
    B) monosaccharides.
    C) bile pigments.
    D) water.
    E) triglycerides.
    Answer: D) water.
  48. 48) The normal color of feces is due primarily to the:
    A) pigments in the bacteria present.
    B) breakdown products of hemoglobin.
    C) pigments in foods consumed.
    D) pigments in epithelial cells sloughed off from the mucosa.
    E) chemical interactions of undigested foods.
    Answer: B) breakdown products of hemoglobin.
  49. 49. Emptying of bile from the gallbladder is controlled by
    A. Cholecystokinin
    B. Enterokinase
    C. Enterocrinin
    D. Gastrin
    E. Pepsin
    Answer: A. Cholecystokinin
  50. 50. The intestinal enzyme that functions to digest fat is
    A. Bile
    B. Lipase
    C. Pepsin
    D. Trypsin
    E. All answers are correct.
    Answer: B. Lipase
  51. 51. Secretes trypsin
    A. Hepatocytes
    B. Parietal cells of stomach
    C. Parotid glands
    D. Acini of pancreas
    E. Chief cells of stomach
    Answer: D. Acini of pancreas
  52. 52. Secretes bile
    A. Hepatocytes
    B. Parietal cells of stomach
    C. Parotid glands
    D. Acini of pancreas
    E. Chief cells of stomach
    Answer: A. Hepatocytes
  53. 53. Secrete hydrochloric acid
    A. Hepatocytes
    B. Parietal cells of stomach
    C. Parotid glands
    D. Acini of pancreas
    E. Chief cells of stomach
    Answer: B. Parietal cells of stomach
  54. 54. Secrete saliva
    A. Hepatocytes
    B. Parietal cells of stomach
    C. Parotid glands
    D. Acini of pancreas
    E. Chief cells of stomach
    Answer: C. Parotid glands
  55. 55. Bile acts in the
    A. Jejunum
    B. Ileum
    C. Duodenum
    D. Ascending colon
    E. Descending colon
    Answer: C. Duodenum
  56. 56. Connects to caecum
    A. Jejunum
    B. Ileum
    C. Duodenum
    D. Ascending colon
    E. Descending colon
    Answer: B. Ileum
  57. 57. Appendix is attached to
    A. Jejunum
    B. Ileum
    C. Duodenum
    D. Ascending colon
    E. Descending colon
    Answer: D. Ascending colon
  58. 58. Connects to sigmoid colon
    A. Jejunum
    B. Ileum
    C. Duodenum
    D. Ascending colon
    E. Descending colon
    Answer: E. Descending colon
  59. 59. Digests lipids
    A. Amylase
    B. Trypsin
    C. Lipases
    D. Bile
    E. Secretin
    Answer: C. Lipases
  60. 60. Digests proteins
    A. Amylase
    B. Trypsin
    C. Lipases
    D. Bile
    E. Secretin
    Answer: B. Trypsin
  61. 61. Emulsifies fats
    A. Amylase
    B. Trypsin
    C. Lipases
    D. Bile
    E. Secretin
    Answer: D. Bile
  62. 62. Digests carbohydrates
    A. Amylase
    B. Trypsin
    C. Lipases
    D. Bile
    E. Secretin
    Answer: A. Amylase
  63. 63. Acts on the stomach
    A. Secretin
    B. Cholecystokinin
    C. Gastrin
    D. Enterogastrone
    E. Glucagon
    Answer: C. Gastrin
  64. 64. Acts to release alkalyn solution from pancreas
    A.Secretin
    B. Cholecystokinin
    C. Gastrin
    D. Enterogastrone
    E. Glucagon
    Answer: A.Secretin
  65. 65. Acts to release enzymes from pancreas
    A.Secretin
    B. Cholecystokinin
    C. Gastrin
    D. Enterogastrone
    E. Glucagon
    Answer: B. Cholecystokinin
  66. 66. Acts to release bile from gallbladder.
    A.Secretin
    B. Cholecystokinin
    C. Gastrin
    D. Enterogastrone
    E. Glucagon
    Answer: B. Cholecystokinin
  67. 67. Connects esophagus to stomach
    A. Pyloric valve
    B. Ileocaecal valve
    C. Cardiac valve
    D. Anal valve
    E. Aortic valve
    Answer: C. Cardiac valve
  68. 68. Connects small intestine to large intestine
    A. Pyloric valve
    B. Ileocaecal valve
    C. Cardiac valve
    D. Anal valve
    E. Aortic valve
    Answer: B. Ileocaecal valve
  69. 69. Connects stomach to duodenum
    A. Pyloric valve
    B. Ileocaecal valve
    C. Cardiac valve
    D. Anal valve
    E. Aortic valve
    Answer: A. Pyloric valve
  70. 70. Connects rectum to the outside
    A. Pyloric valve
    B. Ileocaecal valve
    C. Cardiac valve
    D. Anal valve
    E. Aortic valve
    Answer: D. Anal valve
  71. 71) The epithelium in the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus is __________ epithelium.
    Answer: nonkeratinized stratified squamous
  72. 72) The part of the enteric nervous system located in the muscularis of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract is the __________.
    Answer: myenteric plexus
  73. 73) The condition in which fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity is called __________.
    Answer: ascites
  74. 74) The largest peritoneal fold is called the __________.
    Answer: greater omentum
  75. 75) The antibodies seen in saliva belong to the immunoglobulin class __________.
    Answer: IgA
  76. 76) The role of chloride ions in saliva is to _________ ; the role of bicarbonate and phosphate ions is to __________.
    Answer: activate salivary amylase; act as buffers
  77. 77) Teeth are composed primarily of __________.
    Answer: dentin
  78. 78) The root of a tooth is held to the periodontal ligament by __________.
    Answer: cementum
  79. 79) The process of mechanical digestion in the mouth is called __________.
    Answer: mastication (chewing)
  80. 80) The opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes is called the __________.
    Answer: esophageal hiatus
  81. 81) Chief cells of the stomach produce __________ and __________.
    Answer: pepsinogen; gastric lipase
  82. 82) Parietal cells of the stomach secrete __________ and __________.
    Answer: hydrochloric acid; intrinsic factor
  83. 83) Mixing waves of the stomach convert solid food to a liquid called __________.
    Answer: chyme
  84. 84) During the gastric phase of gastric digestion, acetylcholine from parasympathetic neurons stimulates secretion of the hormone __________.
    Answer: gastrin
  85. 85) Once food enters the duodenum, enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine secrete __________ and __________.
    Answer: CCK; secretin
  86. 86) Gastric emptying is slowest after a meal rich in __________.
    Answer: lipids (triglycerides)
  87. 87) The principal triglyceride digesting enzyme in adults is __________.
    Answer: pancreatic lipase
  88. 88) Bile is secreted by hepatocytes into vessels called __________.
    Answer: bile canaliculi
  89. 89) __________ is an important phospholipid in bile that helps make cholesterol more water soluble.
    Answer: Lecithin
  90. 90) The principal bile pigment is __________.
    Answer: conjugated bilirubin
  91. 91) The phagocytic cells of the liver are called ___________.
    Answer: stellate reticuloendothelial cells
  92. 92) All of the microvilli of the epithelial cells of the small intestine collectively form a fuzzy line called the __________.
    Answer: brush border
  93. 93) Aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer's Patches) are located in the mucosa of the __________ of the small intestine.
    Answer: ileum
  94. 94) Chyme and digestive juices are mixed by localized contractions of the muscularis of the small intestine called __________.
    Answer: segmentations
  95. 95) Chyme normally remains in the small intestine for about __________ hours.
    Answer: 3-5