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psych_260_exam_3_day_4.txt
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psych 260 exam 2
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psych_260_exam_3_day_4.txt

  1. Experimental Abilation
    destroying part of the brain and evaluating the animals subsaequent behavior; the functions can no longer be preformed in the region that abilation occured
  2. Lesion
    a wound or injury; lesion=experimental abilation
  3. ____ within the brain preform ____, not behaviors
    circuts, functions
  4. can one brain region or neural circut souley be responsible for behavior
    no
  5. Excitotoxic lesion
    a method of producing brain lesions; intracerebral injection of an excitatory amino acid, such as kainic acid
  6. Sham lesion
    a method of produciong brain lesions; placebo procedure that duplicates all procedures of a brain lesion except for the step that actually causes the damage to the brain
  7. Radio frequency
    energy
  8. Stereotaxic surgury
    Brain surgury using a stereotaxic apparatus to position an electrode in a specified position of the brain
  9. Stereotaxic atlas
    a collection of drawings of sections of the brain of a particular animal with measurements that provide coordinates for the stereotaxic surgury
  10. hostological methods as it pertains to brain lesions
    they often miss the mark
  11. scanning electron microscope
    provides 3d information about the shape of the surface of a small object
  12. Anterograde labeling method
    a histological method that labels the axon and terminal buttons or neurons whose cell bodies are located in a particular region
  13. PHA-L
    a protein derived from kidney beans and used as an anterograde tracer; taken up by dendrites and cell bodies and carried to the ends of the axons
  14. Immunocytochemical method
    they take advantage of the immune reaction; a histological method; antibodies bond with a dye molecule to indicate the presense of particular proteins of peptides
  15. retrograde labeling method
    a histological method that labels cell bodies that give rise to the terminal buttons that form synapses with cells in a particular region
  16. flurogold
    retrograde labeling dye that is taken up by the terminal buttons and then carried back to the cell bodies
  17. Brain functions involve activity of circuts of _____; thus, diffrent perceptiona and behavioral rsponses involve diffrent ____ __ _______ in the brain
    neurons, patterns of activity
  18. EEG
    an electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on the scalp; record electrical patterns of electrical activity
  19. MEG
    a procedure that detects groups of synchronously activated neurons by means of the magnetic field induced by their electrical activity; ueses an array od SQUIDs
  20. Microelectrode
    A very fine electrode, generally used to record activity of individual neurons
  21. Single-unit recording
    recording of the eectrical activity of a single neuron
  22. macroelectrode
    an electrode used to record the electrical activity of large numbers of neurons in a particular region of the brain
  23. Functional imaging
    a computerized method of detecting metabolic or chemical changes in particular regions of the brain
  24. PET scan
    a functional imaging method; reveals the localization of radioactive tracer in a living brain
  25. fMRI
    permits the measurement of regional metabolism in the brain
  26. MRI
    a technique whereby the interior of the body can be accurately imaged; involves the interaction between radio waves and a strong magnetic field
  27. CT scan
    a device tha employs ba computer to analize data obtained by a scanning beam of x-rays to produce a two-dimensional picture of a "slicde" trhough the body
  28. DTI
    an imaging method that uses a modified MRI scanner to reveal bundles of myelinated axons in the living human brain
  29. Stimulating neural activity: Chemical stimulation
    usually acomplished by injecting a small amount of exciatory amino acod, such as kainic acid or glutamic acid into the bain; stimulates neurons near the tip of the cannula, not axons passing through region
  30. TMS
    stimulation of the cerebral cortex by means of magnetic magnetic fields produced by passing pulses pf electricity through a coil of wire placed next to the skull
  31. ROD photoreceptors
    responsible for bringing light to the image or stimulus; peripherial vision ("on the side")
  32. Cone Photoreceptors
    responsible for bringing color to the image or stimulus
  33. Sensory Transduction
    the process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into slow, graded receptor potentials
  34. Fovea
    region of the retina that mediates the most acute vision of birds and higher mammals; color-sensitive cones constitute the only type of photoreceptor found here
  35. Optic disk
    exit point from the retina ganglion cell axons (fibers) that form the optic nerve; responsible for the blind spot
  36. Accomidation
    changes in the thickness of the lens of the eye, acomplished by the ciliary muscles, that focus images of near or distant objects on the retina
  37. Bipolar cells
    a bipolar neuron located in the kiddle layer of the retina, conveying information from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
  38. ganglion cells
    a neuron located in the retina that recieves visual information from bipolar cells; its axons give rise to the optic nerve
  39. LGN
    a group of cell bodies wuthin the lateral geniculate body of the thalemus; recieves inputs from the retina and projects to the primary visual cortex
  40. LGN: Magnocellular layer
    transmits information necessary for the perception of form, movement, depth, and small diffrences in brighness to the primary visual cortex
  41. LGN: parvocellular layer
    transmits info necessary for perception of color and fine details to the primary visual cortex
  42. Optic Chaism
    the "cross roads" where the message crosses the visual field
  43. Receptive field
    tha portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alteration in te fireing rate of a particular neuron
  44. Thomas Young
    proposed that the eye detetected diffrent colors because it contained 3 types of receptors, each sensitive to a single hue (Trichromatic theory); helps to explain inherited forms of color blindness
  45. Protanopia (trichromatic theory)
    red and green cones are confused; "red" cones are filled by "green" cone opsin
  46. Deuteranopia (trichromatic theory)
    red and green cones are confused; "green" cones are filled with "red" cone opsin
  47. Trianopia (trichromatic theory)
    hues with short wavelenghts are confused; "blue" cones are either lacking or faulty
  48. Striatic Cortex (simple cells)
    orientation-sensitive neuron whos receptive field is organized in an opponent fashion
  49. Striatic Cortex (complex cells)
    a neuron in the visual cortex that responds to the presense of a line segment with a particular orientation located within its receptive field, especially when the line moves perpendicularly to its orientation
  50. Striatic Cortex (hypercomplex Cells)
    neuron in the visual cortex that responds to the presense of a line segment with a particular orientation that ends at a particular point within the cells receptive field
  51. Extrastriatic cortex
    region in the visual association cortex; recieves fibers from the striate cortexand from the superior colliculi and projects to the inferior temporal cortex; each region contains one or more independant maps of the visual field
  52. Dorsal stream (“where”/”how” pathway)
    interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of SPATIAL LOCATION; striate cortex-->posterior parietal cortex/lobe
  53. Ventral stream (“what” pathway)
    interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of FORM; striate cortex-->inferior temporal cortex/lobe; Lateral occipital complex (LOC) involved in object perception; Extrastriate body area (EBA) involved in body parts other than face; PPA area is involved in scenes,areas
  54. Sleep: studies used
    EMG(measures muscle activity); EOG (measures eye movement); EEG (most accurate technique)
  55. EEG patterns: Beta Activity
    the shortest wave lenghts; alert
  56. EEG patterns: Alpha activity
    2nd shortest vwave lenghts; calm state, drowziness
  57. EEG patterns: theta activity
    short long wave lenghts; dream sleep
  58. EEG patterns: Delta activity
    longest wave lenghts; deepest sleep
  59. Narcolepsy
    neurological disorder; caused by a hereditary autoimmune disorder
  60. locus coeruleus
    Noradrenaline-->arousel
  61. Raphe Nucleus
    Serotonin-->arousel
  62. Reticular formation
    arousel and somnolence
  63. Neurochemical control of sleep/wakeing: hypothalemus
    • histamine-->arousel
    • GABA(vlPOA)-->sleepiness
  64. Adenosine
    released by neurons engaging in high levels of metabolic activity
  65. Acetylcholine
    levels vary in cortex and hippocampus depending on wake/sleep state
  66. Flip-flop mechanism
    Orexin motivates wakefullness; Adenosine promote sleepiness
  67. Components to emotions: Behavioral
    2 dimensions: negative to positive valence and low to high arousel
  68. Components to emotions: Autonomic
    sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
  69. Components to emotions: Hormonal
    Diffrent hormones are released depending on the type of emotional experience
  70. Prefrontal cortex damage
    damage affects morality, especially the personal ones
  71. The james-lange theory: feelings of emotions
    behaviors and physiological respones are directly elicited by emotions, the physiology of feeling comes before the emotion of feelings
  72. ___ scans provide more detailed pictures than those obtained by a ___ scanner
    MRI, CT
  73. ___ is the oldest neuroscience procedure
    Abliation
  74. EEG recordings of human brain activity are useful for
    monitoring brain function during brain surgery, the diagnosis of epilepsy, the study of sleep cycle, the study of wakefulness
  75. The ______ procedure allows for the labeling of ______ in the living human brain
    diffusion tensor imaging; axons
  76. One of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is
    experimental abilation
  77. Prosopagnosia
    the inability to recognize a particular face
  78. normal human exposed to a light stimulus that contains an equal number of all wavelengths will report a perception of
    white
  79. The function of the lens is to
    focus light onto the retina
  80. The reason for a "blind spot" in the visual field is that
    there are no photoreceptors in the retina where the axons exit the eye
  81. A disease that attacks the photoreceptors of the retinal periphery would be expected to
    impair night vision
  82. Caffeine promotes wakefulness because it is a(n)
    adenosine antagonist
  83. melanopsin
    found within ganglion cells