The study of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand A. how and why people from diverse cultures are different. B. how children learn to speak and understand language. C. how and why people change and stay the same across the lifespan. D. how humans and animals are similar and different.
C. how and why people change and stay the same across the lifespan
The study of human development is empirical, meaning that it is: A. based on actual facts. B. based on speculation. C. based on common knowledge. D. based on public opinion.
A. based on actual facts
An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by: A. Jean Piaget. B. Sigmund Freud. C. Urie Bronfenbrenner. D. Erik Erikson.
C. Urie Bronfenbrenner
Within the ecological-systems approach, the customs of the society, as well as the economic and political philosophies of the nation, are all a part of the: A. macrosystem. B. microsystem. C. exosystem. D. mesosystem.
Identify an example of the butterfly effect: A. The death of her mother when Isabel was age 8 influenced her to experience depression at age 20. B. Minerva's parents' divorce when she was an infant had less of an influence on Minerva's self-esteem than it did on her older sister's self-esteem. C. A bully's one-time comment to nine-year-old Alex that he smelled dirty influenced Alex to be the first in his family to finish high school and to pull himself out of poverty. D. Living in Austria during the Holocaust influenced Martin to become charitable as an old man.
C. A bully's one-time comment to nine-year-old Alex that he smelled dirty influenced Alex to be the first in his family to finish high school and to pull himself out of poverty.
A major contextual influence on development is: A. genetics. B. brain chemistry. C. social class. D. height.
C. Social Class
You and your high school classmates are part of the same: A. social construction. B. context. C. socioeconomic status. D. cohort.
According to Freud's theory, development in the first six years occurs in three: A. two-year stages. B. psychosexual stages. C. unconscious progressions. D. psychosocial stages.
B. psychosexual stages
In Erikson's psychosocial theory, resolutions to developmental crises depend on the interaction between the individual and: A. his or her genetic predisposition. B. the social environment. C. his or her ability to learn from experience. D. the area of the body where sexual urges are centered.
B. the social environment
Who helped initiate behaviorism by saying, “Let us limit ourselves to the things that can be observed . . .”? A. Lev Vygotsky B. Erik Erikson C. B. F. Skinner D. John B. Watson
D. John B. Watson
In classical conditioning, an organism learns: A. a reflex. B. that reinforcement follows responses. C. to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one. D. how to become self-sufficient.
C. to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one
Identify an example of classical conditioning: A. laughing at a funny movie B. crying with the pain of a stubbed toe C. feeling happy at the smell of baking cookies D. wearing layers in the winter
C. feeling happy at the smell of baking cookies
A dog learns to “shake paws” on command because it has been given dog biscuits for doing so. This is an example of: A. classical conditioning. B. operant conditioning. C. cognitive conditioning. D. stimulus conditioning.
B. operant conditioning
After watching a new Jackie Chan movie, Rob tries some of the karate moves he saw in the film. Social learning theorists would say that ______ has occurred. A. operant conditioning B. classical conditioning C. reinforcement D. modeling
A major pioneer in cognitive theory was: A. Freud. B. Vygotsky. C. Pavlov. D. Piaget.
Molecules of DNA are referred to as: A. cells. B. adenine. C. genes. D. chromosomes.
Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes? A. 23 pairs B. 23 C. 46 pairs D. about 1,000
A. 23 pairs
The sperm and the ovum are: A. chromosomes. B. gametes. C. eggs. D. zygotes.
When two human reproductive cells combine at the moment of conception, the result is a: A. fetus. B. pair of twins. C. zygote. D. gamete.
A person's sex is determined by: A. nurture during prenatal development. B. the 23rd pair of chromosomes. C. the first pair of chromosomes. D. hormones released during prenatal development.
B. the 23rd pair of chromosomes
An XX pattern in the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus will: A. have Down syndrome. B. be female. C. be male. D. be homosexual.
B. be female
An allele is: A. a normal variation of a particular gene. B. either an X or a Y. C. the gene that causes twins to develop. D. an individual's actual appearance and behavior.
A. a normal vairation of a particular gene
Tony denied any involvement with Belinda but with a single drop of his blood, his paternity for her child was confirmed. How? A. through his karyotype B. through his gametes C. through his phenotype D. through his DNA
D. through his DNA
The period of the fetus lasts: A. during the last three months before the child's birth. B. from the midway point of prenatal development until birth. C. from the second until the eighth week after conception. D. from nine weeks after conception until birth.
D. the nine weeks after conception until birth
The placenta: A. screens the embryo from all harmful substances. B. provides the fetus with its first taste of breast milk. C. surrounds and protects the developing organism. D. mixes the blood supply of mother and fetus.
C. surrounds and protects the developing organism
Approximately what percentage of zygotes successfully become implanted? A. 20 percent B. 40 percent C. 70 percent D. 90 percent
B. 40 percent
The head begins to take shape in the ______ week after conception. A. fourth B. fifth C. sixth D. seventh
With excellent medical care, a fetus can survive if it is born as early as: A. 16 weeks after conception. B. 22 weeks after conception. C. 27 weeks after conception. D. 30 weeks after conception.
B. 22 weeeks after conception
Teratology refers to: A. abnormalities in the birth process. B. the study of birth defects. C. research in new forms of birth control. D. the study of chromosomal abnormalities.
B. the study of birth defects
Maria used a prescription medicine for two weeks while she was pregnant. The potential damage: A. depends partly on when during her pregnancy she took the medicine. B. is the same throughout the pregnancy. C. is greater for structures that are fully developed. D. is highest during the last trimester.
A. depends partly on when during her pregnancy she took the medicine
The average newborn doubles her birthweight in: A. two months. B. four months. C. six months. D. the first year.
B. four months
Children reach half their adult height by age: A. 2 years. B. 3 years. C. 4 years. D. 6 years.
A. 2 years
Half of the subjects rank higher and half of them rank lower than the 50th: A. percentile. B. stanine. C. standard deviation. D. T-score.
The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as: A. the blood-brain barrier. B. brain-override. C. head-sparing. D. cephalo-sequential primary default.
A typical newborn will sleep: A. 10 hours or more a day. B. 13 hours or more a day. C. 17 hours or more a day. D. 20 hours or more a day.
C. 17 hours
Jake sleeps in his parent's bed and awakens often during the night. According to recent research, Jake: A. sleeps much less than an infant who sleeps alone. B. sleeps just as much as an infant who sleeps alone. C. sleeps more than an infant who sleeps alone. D. will experience problems sleeping through the night for many years.
B. sleeps just as much as an infant who sleeps alone
Michael was subjected to much stress as an infant due to repeated episodes of family violence. As an adult, he is incapable of normal stress responses because stress hormones in his brain were: A. destroyed. B. pruned. C. indifferent. D. overproduced.
Trent is an infant who lacks many of the new toys and videos that promote brain development. He spends much of his day in a playpen with kitchen items for toys, listening to his grandmother sing while his mother works outside the home. Given his situation, Trent's brain development will most likely: A. be extremely impaired due to his limited environment. B. be somewhat impaired due to his limited environment. C. proceed normally due to the self-righting tendency. D. flourish due to the self-excelling tendency.
C. proceed normally due to the self-righting tendency
Jean Piaget was most interested in: A. studying how children think. B. measuring what children know. C. how parents discipline their children. D. how peers influence each other.
A. studying how children think
When we revamp our old ways of thinking because of new information, Piaget calls this: A. historical context. B. assimilation. C. accommodation. D. imitation.
An example of stage-three behavior is: A. thumb-sucking and self-soothing. B. searching for a teddy bear hidden under a blanket. C. trying to dress like Mommy or Daddy. D. making a noise, looking for a smile, and smiling back.
D. making noise, looking for a smile, and smiling back
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to: A. learn to use language to express sensations. B. think of past and future events. C. use senses and motor skills to understand the world. D. think logically and critically.
C. use senses and motor skills to understand the world
The theorist who believed that children learn language when they are reinforced by parental attention was: A. Jean Piaget. B. F. Skinner. C. Noam Chomsky. D. Leo Vygotsky.
B. F. Skinner
The usual order of the development of spoken language is: A. cooing, babbling, reflexes, spoken words. B. reflexes, cooing, babbling, spoken words. C. babbling, cooing, spoken words, reflexes. D. cooing, reflexes, babbling, spoken words.
B. reflexese, booing, babbling, spoken words
An apparent (but not actual) drop between one surface and another is called a(n): A. illusion drop. B. actual cliff. C. zone of danger. D. visual cliff.
D. visual cliff
At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recent emotional reaction is likely to be: A. fear of strangers. B. a wide-eyed look of surprise. C. a social smile. D. a squeal of delight at her favorite toy.
C. a social smile
The emotion of pride usually appears at what age? A. 2-4 months B. 6-8 months C. 8 months to 1 year D. 1 1/2 years
D. 1 1/2 years
When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting: A. general anxiety. B. separation anxiety. C. solitary fear. D. fear of isolation.
B. seperation anxiety
The Western value of independence is clearly exhibited in: A. Freud's oral stage. B. Piaget's sensorimotor stage. C. Erikson's stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt. D. epigenetic theory.
C. Erikson's stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are: A. self-aware. B. compliant. C. competitive. D. independent.
Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called: A. psychosocialization. B. synchrony. C. symbiosis. D. interplay.
Secure attachment (type B) makes a toddler: A. willing to explore. B. self-centered. C. cling to the mother. D. want to talk.
A. willing to explore
Josh is 15 months old. His parents are happy in their marriage and financially stable. Most likely, Josh's attachment type will be: A. insecure-avoidant. B. secure. C. insecure-resistant/avoidant. D. disorganized.
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called: A. separation anxiety. B. social referencing. C. stranger anxiety. D. uncertainty checking.
B. social referencing
The average 6-year-old from a developed nation weighs between: A. 20-30 pounds. B. 30-40 pounds. C. 40-50 pounds. D. 50-60 pounds.
C. 40-50 pounds
The body mass index (BMI) is the lowest of the life span at age: A. 1. B. 5. C. 9. D. 13.
The ethnic group from which children tend to be tallest is: A. Africans. B. Europeans. C. Asians. D. Latinos.
Myelination: A. connects the two halves of the brain. B. compensates for loss of brain function due to injury. C. promotes regular childhood sleep patterns. D. speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.
D. speedds up the transmission of neural impulses
Janie just cannot seem to keep from becoming extremely angry when she does not get her way. Her ability to reign in this tendency toward tantrums will get better when her ______ has further matured. A. parietal cortex B. prefrontal cortex C. striate cortex D. frontal cortex
B. prefrontal cortex
Young children who engage in active play much of the day tend to exhibit: A. poor test scores when they enter school. B. a mastery of fine and gross motor skills. C. a highly developed hippocampus. D. limited language ability.
B. a mastery of fine and gross motor skills
Piaget called cognitive development between the ages of two and six ______ intelligence. A. operational B. egocentric C. preoperational D. symbiotic
A magician's stock and trade is getting the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he is manipulating another. This is most easy with preoperational children, as they are easily fooled with their tendency to: A. be static thinkers. B. reverse things in their perception. C. centrate. D. equilibrate.
Failure to understand that undoing a sequence of events will bring about the original conditions or situation is called: A. concrete operations. B. conservation. C. irreversibility. D. symbolic thought.
An experimenter lines up pairs of checkers into two identical rows. Then the experimenter elongates one of the rows by spacing the checkers farther apart. This is a classic test of: A. conservation of volume. B. conservation of area. C. conservation of numbers. D. conservation of matter.
C. conservation of numbers
The stimulation of intellectual growth in children as guided by older and more skilled society members is: A. guided participation. B. equilibration. C. an apprenticeship in thinking. D. child-centeredness.
C. an apprecticeship in thinking
One of Vygotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that: A. there is a certain place in a school where most learning occurs. B. children can only reach a certain level of intelligence. C. children can master some tasks with the help of others. D. certain parts of the brain need to be activated.
C. children can master some tasks with the help of others
According to recent research, the development of theory of mind is age related and a function of: A. a rich social context. B. consistent scaffolding. C. the zone of proximal development. D. the maturation of the prefrontal cortex.
D. the maturation of the prefrontal cortex
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years is called: A. initiative versus guilt. B. phallic pride versus penis envy. C. the preoperational stage. D. autonomy versus inferiority.
A. initiative versus guilt
One difference between shame and guilt is that: A. toddlers feel guilt but not shame. B. guilt comes from within the child. C. during childhood, we acquire more shame and less guilt. D. guilt is based on how others judge our performance.
B. guilt come from within the child
When 4-year-old Karen is angry, she lashes out by hitting. This is an example of: A. an internalizing problem. B. an externalizing problem. C. modulated emotional expression. D. frustration management.
B. an externalizing problem
Joey fell from his tricycle and skinned his knee. He began to cry and his friend, Andre, also started to cry after watching him fall. Applying research with mirror neurons to this situation, we might say that: A. Andre's brain was activated to feel sorry for Joey. B. Andre's brain was activated to feel Joey's pain. C. Andre's emotional regulation was disturbed by Joey's fall. D. Andre's sense of friendship prompted him to feel miserable.
B. Andre's brain was activated to feel Joey's pain
Diana Baumrind is famous for her work on: A. the Electra complex. B. types of play. C. styles of parenting. D. cognitive stages.
C. styles of parenting
A young girl's parents have made a rule but then they make an exception when their daughter gives a good reason. Their parenting pattern is: A. authoritative. B. permissive. C. authoritarian. D. inconsistent.
Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who are: A. abusive. B. over-controlling. C. authoritarian. D. permissive.
A. J. wanted a cookie before dinner but his mother said, “no.” Then he asked his father for a cookie and his father said, "Okay, but just one." This started an argument between A. J.'s parents. How could their argument have been avoided? A. His mother should have moved the cookies out of A.'s sight. B. With the national problem of childhood obesity, children do not need cookies. C. His parents should have formed a parental alliance. D. His father should have asked his mother if A. J. could have a cookie.
C. his parents hsould have formed a parental alliance