Psych Test 1

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Psych Test 1
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2011-09-05 23:55:29
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Flashcards on an Introduction to Psychology by Benjamin Lahey
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  1. What is Humanism?
    The belief that human beings determine their own fate through the unconscious decisions they make.
  2. What is Behaviorism?
    Psychology that emphasizes the process of learning and the measurement of overt behavior.
  3. What is the Psychodynamic Theory?
    based on the premise that human behavior and relationships are shaped by conscious and unconscious influences.
  4. Structuralism vs Functionalism
    Functionalism is having the consciousness for survival and Structuralism is simply identifying the basic elements of conscious experience.
  5. What is Social Learning Theory?
    Aspects of our behavior are learned from other persons in society (Family, friends, and culture)
  6. Empirical Research
    Research based on observations of publicly observable behavior.
  7. Wilhelm Wundt
    • Is considered to be the “father” of modern
    • psychology.

    • Wundt founded the school of thought called
    • Structuralism.

    • Is credited with founding the first laboratory
    • solely dedicated to the empirical study of psychological events.

    Biologist
  8. Goals Of Psychology
    • 1. Description
    • 2. Prediction
    • 3. Understanding
    • 4. Influence
  9. Henry Alston
    • Structuralist
    • African American
    • Studied the sensation of pain from heat
  10. Herman Ebbinghaus
    • German Functionalist
    • Did a study on memory
  11. Ivan Pavlov
    • -Studied the neurology associated with the digestive system of dogs (Nobel Prize in psychology)
    • -His investigation of psychic secretion resulted in our initial understanding of what is today known as classical conditioning
  12. William James
    • William James was a professor of biology and philosophy at Harvard University
    • James is considered to be the father of American Psychology.
    • James was deeply influenced by the work of Charles Darwin
  13. Sigmund Freud
    • Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory was the first of a family of theories called psychodynamic theories.
    • Freud was one of the most influential people in the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy from the late 1800’s up to the time of his death in 1936
  14. Margaret Foy Washburn
    • Margaret Washburn wrote the first text in the field that would be known as comparative psychology (The Animal Mind 1908).
    • Washburn was president of the APA I n 1921 and elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1932.
  15. B.F. Skinner
    • B.F. Skinner is arguably the most famous American Psychologist of the twentieth century.
    • Skinner was a strict behaviorist, attempting to understand animal and human behavior in terms of the principles governing operant conditioning
  16. Operant Conditioning
    Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which behavior is strengthened by the presence of positive or negative reinforcement and weakened in the absence of positive or negative reinforcement.
  17. Carl Rogers
    Wrote a book, “Client Centered Therapy.”
  18. Abraham Maslow
    • Maslow coined the term “humanistic psychology”
    • In the 1950’s Maslow was still conducting research on the behavior of monkeys
  19. Ramon y Cajal
    A pioneer in neuropsychological research, Santiago Ramon y Cajal is noted for his description of neurons in a work published in 1894.
  20. Inez Prosser
    • Inez Prosser was the first African-American woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology.
    • Sadly, Prosser died in an automobile accident shortly after earning her degree.
  21. Independent Variable
    What researchers arrange to allow a comparison of the participants behavior under different conditions. (violent movie)
  22. Dependent Variable
    Behavior or outcome that is caused by the independent variable.

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