Micro Quiz 1

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brittanysparks
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100007
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Micro Quiz 1
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2011-09-06 23:51:33
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Micro Quiz
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Micro Quiz 1
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  1. Small circular DNA in prokaryotes that is not part of their main DNA
    Plasmid
  2. Coccus referes to the bacteria as being _____ shaped
    spherical
  3. a motion referring to a bacterium using its methods of motility to move away from a bad stimulus
    taxis
  4. variations of a bacteria stran as determined by its H antigens
    serovar
  5. the unfolding of a protein molecule into an unnatural configuration is called _______
    denaturation
  6. if a microb can make you sick it is referred to as being ____
    pathogenic
  7. complex sugars that usually lack sweetness
    polysaccharide
  8. the degree of the microbs ability to cause a disease is referred to as its _____
    virulence
  9. a sugar coated material that makes bacteria very sticky
    glycocalyx
  10. fluids that have equal amounts of solutes and solvents on both sides of a semipermeable membrane are called _____
    isotonic
  11. the same elemental atoms only with different numbers of neutrons are called
    isotope
  12. a synthesis reaction in a living organism is referred to as a _______ reaction
    anabolic
  13. bacillus referes to the bacteria as being _____ shaped
    rod
  14. bonds between amino acids are called ____ bonds
    peptide
  15. a type of bond where an electron has been donated and received
    ionic
  16. the basic units or building blocks of carbohydrates are______
    sucrose
  17. an alkaline mixture would also be a_______
    base
  18. 3 main purpose for Microbs
    • 1. Part of the food chain
    • 2. Recyclers of Human waste and oil which makes it less harmful to environment
    • 3. Symbotic: part of us (in our gut)
  19. Microbs/Bacteria are important to us for 3 main reasons
    • 1. Help keep things out of our gut
    • 2. Produce vitamin B&K essential for digestion
    • 3.1/3 of dry weight of feces is Microbs
  20. Fermentation, Mushrooms, Sour crout, Vinegar, Sour dough bread
    Examples of Microbs/Bacteria's
  21. Naming Microbs describes the organism
    Genius (cap) + species (low case) Ex. E. coli
  22. What cell is synonymous with Bacteria and means pre-nucleus
    Prokaryote
  23. different types of bacteria that exist in the
    extreme hot or cold
    Archaea
  24. What cell is everything else, ex. algae, mold, fungi, humans
    Eukaryote
  25. Theory that microbs cause disease
    Germ Theory
  26. Theory that specific bugs cause specific disease
    Kock's Theory
  27. A-septic technique (pasteurization: heat it,
    bottle it and keep it from spoiling)
    Pastor technique
  28. if you build up immune system you can overcome
    germ theory
    Immune System theory (Dr. Hansen)
  29. of synthetic drugs, use of chemistry to alter
    what goes on with our body
    Chemo Therapy
  30. concept to administer drugs or chemicals for success is: to prove that the benefit out ways the risk, even it is harmful or could kill.
    Pharmaceuticals
  31. been developed to work on bacteria (NOT on
    fungal infections or viruses)
    Antibiotics
  32. Staph, Anthrax, MRSA, Hantavirus, E. bola, West
    nile virus & Bird flu
    Infectious Diseases
  33. Atoms consist of what 4 things?
    Proton, Neutron, Electron, Nucleus
  34. the number of protons also determines what element it is
    Atomic number
  35. number of protons + number of neutrons is the
    Atomic weight
  36. what element is always found in living things
    carbon
  37. Sharing electrons
    Covalent bond
  38. has a charged to it allowing life to happen
    polar molecule
  39. sodium, calcium and potassium are
    Electrolytes in the body
  40. On pH scale: _____ is at 1 on the scale and example is HCl, ______ is at 14
    • acid (H+) proton donor
    • base/alkalie (OH-) proton acceptor
  41. on a pH scale at 6.8-8.5 is where ______ live
    virus
  42. Most common elements in Organic compounds are:
    Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfer, Phosphorus
  43. organic compounds, sugars & starches (fuel) contain: carbon, hydrogen & oxygen 1:2:1 ratio
    Carbohydrates
  44. Simple sugars are:
    Monosaccharides (ex. glucose)
  45. glucose and fructose= sucrose (table
    sugar)
    Disaccharides
  46. Glucose with galactose
    Lactose
  47. cell wall of fungus, exoskeleton of crab and lobster “the crunch”
    Chitin
  48. Fats, mostly made of C, H, O (non ratio) Come in carbon chains with mostly hydrogens attached to carbon chain.
    Lipids
  49. Lipids function and purpose is:
    • protection
    • energy source
    • structure role of cell membranes
  50. makes up the cell membrane 2 Fatty acids, one end of phospholipid is water soluble (hydrophilic)and other is fat soluble (hydrophobic)
    Phospholipids
  51. type of lipid, involved in structural function (ex. cholesterol)
    steroids
  52. solid at room temp. and saturated with hydrogen
    saturated fats
  53. double bonded (lacking hydrogen), making it liquid at room temperature
    Unsaturated Fats
  54. Chain like polymer made up of C, H, O,
    Proteins
  55. building blocks of proteins, also have a left spin on them
    amino acids
  56. Functions and Purposes of Proteins
    • enzymes & antibioties,
    • molecules that transport in and out of cell
    • structure of cell
  57. 3D, shape gives enzyme its duties/functionality
    Protein
  58. If a reaction requires energy
    Endergonic
  59. If a reaction releases energy:
    Exergonic
  60. bacteria move away from chemical/antibiotics it
    is referred to as
    chemiotaxis
  61. random movement of molecules from an area of
    higher concentration solute to an area of lower concentration of solute
    Diffusion
  62. diffusion of water across a semi-permeable
    membrane from an area of lower concentration solute to an area of higher
    concentration solute
    Osmosis
  63. occurs when you have large molecules. It moves
    from higher concentration to lower concentration. A protein carrier comes along changes the shape allowing it to pass through the protein channel
    Facillitated Transport
  64. ____ gives flexability to the cell membrane and needs to be replenished
    cholesterol
  65. Co-enzymes
    vitamins
  66. Co-factor
    minerals
  67. Apo-enzyme
    • protein portion generally needs co-factors to be
    • activated
  68. if co-factor is attached to apo-enzymes it is referred to as
    holow enzyme
  69. a molecule the enzyme is supposed to react with
    Sub-strate

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