To protect packing rings or seals from damage when it is necessary to install them over or inside threaded sections, the
threaded section should be covered with a suitable sleeve.
To prevent external and internal leakage in aircraft hydraulic units, the most commonly used type of seal is the
Which allows free fluid flow in one direction and no fluid flow in the other direction?
Select the valve used in a hydraulic system that directs pressurized fluid to one end of an actuating cylinder and simultaneously directs return fluid to the reservoir from the other end.
What function does the absolute pressure regulator perform in the pneumatic power system?
Regulates the compressor inlet air to provide a stabilize source of air for the compressor.
(1) Relief valves are used in pneumatic systems as damage-preventing units.
(2) Check valves are used in both hydraulic and pneumatic systems.Regarding the above statements,
Both No. 1 and No.2 are true
One of the distinguishing characteristics of an open-center selector valve used in a hydraulic system is that
Fluid flows through the valve in the OFF position
What type of packings should be used in hydraulic components to be installed in a system containing Skydrol?
Packing material made for ester base fluids
Relief valves are used in pneumatic systems
as damage preventing-units
An aircraft pneumatic system, which incorporates an engine-driven multistage reciprocating compressor, also requires
a moisture seperator
The removal of air from an aircraft hydraulic system is generally accomplished
by operating the various hydraulic components through several cycles.
Pneumatic systems utilize
The component in the hydraulic system that is used to direct the flow of fluid is the
What type of selector valve is one of the most commonly used in hydraulic systems to provide for simultaneous flow of fluid into and out of a connected actuating unit?
Four-Port, closed center-valve
What is the purpose of using backup rings with O-rings in hydraulic systems above 1,500 PSI?
Preventing high pressure from extruding the seal between the moving and stationary part.
The purpose of the pressure regulator in a hydraulic system is to
Maintain system operating pressure within a predetermined range and to unload the pump.
A flexible sealing element subject to motion is a
Which characteristics apply to aircraft hydraulic systems?
1. Minimum maintenance requirements.
4. Simple to inspect.
1, 2, 4
If a rigid tube is too short for the flare to reach its seat before tightening, pulling it into place by tightening
May distort the flare
The installation of a new metal hydraulic line should be made with
Enough bends to allow the tubes to bend and contract with temperature changes and to absorb vibration.
Extrusion of an O-ring seal is prevented in a high-pressure system by the use of a
Back up ring on the side of the O-ring away from pressure.
What is one advantage of piston-type hydraulic motors over electric motors?
There is no fire hazard if the motor is stalled
Generally, the first step in removing an accumulator from an aircraft is to
Relieve system pressure
(Refer to Figure 11.) Which fitting is an AN flared-tube fitting?
(Refer to Figure 12.) Which illustration(s) show(s) the correct spiral for teflon backup rings?
1 and 3
If a hydraulic brake system uses neoprene rubber packing materials, the correct hydraulic fluid to service the system is
Mineral Base Oil
The internal resistance of a fluid which tends to prevent it from flowing is called
What is the viscosity of hydraulic fluid?
The internal resistance of a fluid which tends to prevent it from flowing
Which is a characteristic of petroleum base hydraulic fluid?
Flamable under normal conditions
(1) When servicing aircraft hydraulic systems, use the type fluid specified in the aircraft manufacturer's maintenance manual or on the instruction plate affixed to the reservoir or unit.
(2) Hydraulic fluids for aircraft are dyed a specific color for each type of fluid.Regarding the above statements,
Both No.1 and No.2 are True
Petroleum base hydraulic fluid is which color?
Which of the following is adversely affected by atmospheric humidity if left unprotected?
2. Skydrol hydraulic fluid.
Which is a characteristic of synthetic base hydraulic fluid?
High Flash Point
Which statement about fluids is correct?
All fluids readily transmit pressure
Two types of hydraulic fluids currently being used in civil aircraft are
Mineral Base, and Phosphate Ester base
Which of the following lists only desirable properties of a good hydraulic fluid?
Low viscosity, chemical stability, high flash point, high fire point
Characteristics of MIL-H-8446 (Skydrol 500 A & B) hydraulic fluid are
Where can information be obtained about the compatibility of fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with aircraft materials?
Manufacturers Technical Bulletins
Characteristics of MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid are
Red Color, petroleum base, will burn, use sythetic rubber seals
Characteristics of MIL-H-7644 hydraulic fluid are
blue color, vegetable base, will burn, natural rubber seals
If an aircraft hydraulic system requires mineral base hydraulic fluid, but phosphate ester base hydraulic fluid is used, what will be the effect on the system?
System will be contaminated, fluids will not blend, and the seals will fail
What is used to flush a system normally serviced with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid?
Naptha or Varsol
Components containing phosphate ester-base hydraulic fluid may be cleaned with
How can the proper hydraulic fluid to be used in an airplane be determined?
Consult the aircraft manufaturers service manual
Phosphate ester base hydraulic fluid is very susceptible to contamination from
water in the atmosphere
(1) Materials which are Skydrol compatible or resistant include most common aircraft metals and polyurethane and epoxy paints.
(2) Skydrol hydraulic fluid is compatible with nylon and natural fibers.Regarding the above statements,
Both No.1 and No.2 are true
The hydraulic component that automatically directs fluid from either the normal source or an emergency source to an actuating cylinder is called a
The primary purpose of a hydraulic actuating unit is to transform
Fluid pressure into useful work
The primary function of the flap overload valve is to
prevents the flaps from being lowered at airspeeds which would impose excessive structural loads.
A unit which transforms hydraulic pressure into linear motion is called
an actuating cylinder
If it is necessary to adjust several pressure regulating valves in a hydraulic system, what particular sequence, if any, should be followed?
Units with the highest pressure settings are adjusted first
If an aircraft's constant-pressure hydraulic system cycles more frequently than usual and no fluid leakage can be detected, the most probable cause is
Low accumalator air preload
Unloading valves are used with many engine-driven hydraulic pumps to
relieve the pump pressure
What safety device is usually located between the driving unit and hydraulic pump drive shaft?
pump drive coupling shear section
Which valve installed in a hydraulic system will have the highest pressure setting?
Thermal Relief Valve
Excluding lines, which components are required to make up a simple hydraulic system?
Pump, reservoir, selector valve, and actuator
Most variable displacement hydraulic pumps of current design
Contain a built-in means of system regulation
In a gear-type hydraulic pump, a mechanical safety device incorporated to protect the pump from overload is the
After installation of a rebuilt hydraulic hand pump, it is found that the handle cannot be moved in the pumping direction (pressure stroke). The most likely cause is an incorrectly installed
Hand pump outport check valve
Pressure is a term used to indicate the force per unit area. Pressure is usually expressed in
Pounds per square inch
If two actuating cylinders which have the same cross-sectional area but different lengths of stroke are connected to the same source of hydraulic pressure, they will exert
Equal amounts of force and will move at the same rate of speed
Using a hand pump, pressure of 100 PSI has been built up in a hydraulic system. The hand pump piston is 1 inch in diameter. A 1/2-inch line connects the hand pump to an actuating cylinder 2 inches in diameter. What is the pressure in the line between the hand pump and the actuator?
Heat exchanger cooling units are required in some aircraft hydraulic systems because of
High Pressure and High Rates of fluid flow
Which is true regarding the ground check of a flap operating mechanism which has just been installed?
If the time required to operate the mechanism decrease with succesive operations, it indicates the air is being worked out of the system.
A hydraulic system operational check during ground runup of an aircraft indicates that the wing flaps cannot be lowered using the main hydraulic system, but can be lowered by using the emergency hand pump. Which is the most likely cause?
The fluid level in the reservoir is low
Many hydraulic reservoirs contain a small quantity of fluid which is not available to the main system pump. This fluid is retained to
Supply fluid to the auxilery pump
The unit which causes one hydraulic operation to follow another in a definite order is called a
The purpose of a hydraulic pressure regulator is to
Relieve the pump of its load when no actuating units are being operated
Severe kickback of the emergency hydraulic hand pump handle during the normal intake stroke will indicate which of the following?
The hand pump outport check valve is sticking open.
What type of valve in an aircraft hydraulic system permits fluid to flow freely in one direction, but restricts the rate at which fluid is allowed to flow in the other direction?
Orifice check Valve
The main system pressure relief valve in a simple hydraulic system equipped with a power control valve should be adjusted
with the power control valve held in the closed position
A hydraulic accumulator is charged with an air preload of 1,000 PSI. When a hydraulic system pressure of 3,000 PSI is developed, the pressure on the air side of the accumulator will be
How is the air in a hydraulic accumulator prevented from entering the fluid system?
By physically seperating the air chamber from the oil chamber with flexible or movable seperator.
After a hydraulic accumulator has been installed and air chamber charged, the main system hydraulic pressure gauge will not show a hydraulic pressure reading until
The fluid side of the accumalator has been charged.
Which must be done before adjusting the relief valve of a main hydraulic system incorporating a pressure regulator?
Eliminate the action of the unloading valve
Which seals are used with petroleum base hydraulic fluids?
The air that is expended and no longer needed when an actuating unit is operated in a pneumatic system is
exhausted or dumped, usually overboard
Some hydraulic systems incorporate a device which is designed to remain open to allow a normal fluid flow in the line, but closed if the fluid flow increases above an established rate. This device is generally referred to as a
When hydraulic system pressure control and relief units fail to function properly, how are most systems protected against overpressure?
A shear section on the main hydraulic pump drive shaft
A worn hydraulic pump shaft seal can normally be detected by
Hydraulic fluid flowing from the pump drain line
If an engine-driven hydraulic pump of the correct capacity fails to maintain normal system pressure during the operation of a cowl flap actuating unit, the probable cause is
restriction in the pump outlet
Before removing the filler cap of a pressurized hydraulic reservoir,
relieve the air pressure
What happens to the output of a constant-displacement hydraulic pump when the hydraulic system pressure regulator diverts the fluid from the system to the reservoir?
The output pressure reduces, but the volume remains the same
Hydraulic system accumulators serve which of the following functions?
1. Dampen pressure surges.
2. Supplement the system pump when demand is beyond the pump's capacity.
3. Store power for limited operation of components if the pump is not operating.
1, 2, 3
Chattering of the hydraulic pump during operation is an indication
That air is entering the pump
Quick-disconnect couplings in hydraulic systems provide a means of
Quickly connecting and disconnecting hydraulic lines without loss of fluid or enterance of air into the system.
Which seal/material is used with phosphate ester base hydraulic fluids?
A hydraulic pump is a constant-displacement type if it
Delivers a uniform rate of fluid flow
A hydraulic motor converts fluid pressure to
A crossflow valve which is designed to bypass fluid from one side of an actuating cylinder to the other side, under certain conditions, may be found in some aircraft installed in the
Landing gear system
Hydraulic fluid filtering elements constructed of porous paper are normally
Discarded at regular intervals and replaced with new filtering elements
A pilot reports that when the hydraulic pump is running, the pressure is normal. However, when the pump is stopped, no hydraulic pressure is available. This is an indication of a
Leaking accumalator air valves
If fluid is added to a reservoir in a constant pressure hydraulic system while the system is pressurized, what will result?
The fluid level will increase when system pressure is reduced.
In a hydraulic system that has a reservoir pressurized with turbine-engine compressor bleed air, which unit reduces the air pressure between the engine and reservoir?
Air pressure regulator
What is the main purpose of a pressurized reservoir in a hydraulic system?
Prevents Hydraulic pump cativation
One of the main advantages of skydrol is its
wide operating temperature
Hydraulic fluid reservoirs are sometimes designed with a standpipe in one of the outlet ports in order to assure emergency supply of fluid. The outlet port with the standpipe in it furnishes fluid to the
Normal System Power Pump
An emergency supply of fluid is often retained in the main hydraulic system reservoir by the use of a standpipe. The supply line is connected to the
Inlet of the main system pump
To check the air charge in a hydraulic accumulator,
Reduce all hydraulic pressure, then observe the reading on the accumalator air gauge.
How would the air pressure charge in the accumulator be determined if the engine is inoperative, but the system still has hydraulic pressure?
Operate a hydraulic unit slowly and note the pressure at which a rapid pressure drop begin as it goes towards zero.
How many of these seals are used with petroleum base hydraulic fluids?
2. Natural rubber.
Hydraulic system thermal relief valves are set to open at a
higher pressure than the system relief valve
Chatter in a hydraulic system is caused by
air in the system
If hydraulic fluid is released when the air valve core of the accumulator is depressed, it is evidence of
A ruptured diaphram or leaking seals
Although dents in the heel of a bend are not permissible, they are acceptable in the remainder of a hydraulic tube providing they are less than what percent of the tube diameter?
If the hydraulic system pressure is normal while the engine-driven pump is running, but there is no pressure after the engine has been shut off, it indicates
No air pressure in the accumalator
The purpose of restrictors in hydraulic systems is to
Control the rate of movement of hydraucally operated mechanisms.
A common cause of slow actuation of hydraulic components is
Internal Leakage in the actuating unit
A loud hammering noise in a hydraulic system having an accumulator usually indicates
too low or no preload in the accumalator
Teflon hose that has developed a permanent set from being exposed to high pressure or temperature should
not be bent or straighten further
In a typical high-pressure pneumatic system, if the moisture separator does not vent accumulated water when the compressor shuts down, a likely cause is a