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stem with more than one flower group
increase in size through cell division/ expansion
generation of cellular diversity
overall aqusition of form and shape
prcoesss generating a particular spatial arrangement of cell types and tissues
keep cells alive and functioning
Cell type/Tissue specific protiens
only in some cells. allow that cell to carry out a certian function
Chemical whose concentration varies which is involved in pattern formation and to which cells respond differently to based on thresholds
growth that occurs near the tips or root/shoot apical meristems.
outermost layer for protection and interaction with the enviornment
Photosynthetic portion, storage, support
transport long distant and support
H2O and minerals move from root to shoot.
move products of photosythesis down the plant
What are 3 structurally independent but interactin networks in the cell wall.
- 1. cellulose microfibrils and cross linking hemicellulose.
- 2. matrix pectin
- 3. structural proteins (lignin in secondary growth
What are the 3 structures of the cell wall?
- 1. Cellulose microfibrils
- 2. hemicellulose
- 3. pectin
What are the 4 functions of the cell wall?
- 1. strength and support for the body
- 2. allows for growth and expansion
- 3. protect cell contents
- 4. regulates uptake and release of substances
What is the most dominate form of growth in Arabidopsis?
What are the two types of growth that can occur in plants?
primary and secondary
What are the two wasy cell division can be asymmetric?
by size or by unequal distribution of molecules
What are the two levels on cell control?
transcriptional and gene specific
What are the two types of proteins that control the cell?
housekeeping and cell/tissue specific
What are the three different behaviors of cells?
- 1. cell division
- 2. cell expansion
- 3.cell-cell signaling
What are the four basic processes of development?
- 1. growth
- 2. cell differentiation
- 3. morphogenesis
- 4. pattern formation
What are the four basic principles of development?
- 1. involves four basic processes
- 2. the four processes involve different cell behaviors
- 3. the behavior are controlled by proteins made in the cell
- 4. development is a process
- 5. the fate of the cell is a consequence of its linage and postion
- 6. pattern formation can involve the interpretation of postion info
- 7. asymmetric divison make cells different form each other
What is alternation of generation/
plants have a diploid (spore) and hapliod (gamete) phases
What are the three tools of the model organism?
- 1. sequences in genes in its gene
- 2. insertional mutant lines
- 3. whole genome micorarrys
rigid network of polysaccharides and proteins which suuround a plant cell
transport into the cell wall
everthing outside of the the PM
direct transport of molecules between cytoplasms of two cells that are linked by plasmadesmata
What is the structure of a plasmadesmata?
lined with pm with desmatubule(ER) running through
pm lined channels between cells. are gated and have size excelusion
Plasmadesmata allow for the the transport of ____ info between cell.
enter and exiting the cell across the pm
identifies all gens involved in a process
use to determine a function of a particular gene
What are the four steps in forward genetics?
- 1. perform mutagensis
- 2. screen for the mutants that have a particular phenotype
- 3. Perform detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization
- 4. identify gene dirupted mutant
What are the four steps for seed mutagenesis for foward genetics?
- 1. treat seeds with mutagen (M1 seeds)
- 2. Plant M1 seeds and give rise to M1 plants (look WT)
- 3. collect M2 seeds
- 4. plant M2 and look through M2 plants for mutant phenotype
What are the two ways the mutagenize a seed for forward genetics?
- 1. EMS= chemical, single nucleotide changed
- 2. electormagnetic radiation=chromosome deletion/breakage which lead to inversion, deletions, and translocations
What are the two steps to genetic characterization for forward genetics?
- 1. backcross to WT plant
- 2. determine complementation groups
Why sould you backcross in FG and how?
- why= there may be more than 1 mutation in a given plant
- how=cross mutant to wt
- f1 hetero for mutation(wt), f2 identify mutation repeat ~ 3x
Why determine complementation groups in FG and how?
- why= determine how many genes you have identified
- how= cross mutant with each other and look at f1
mutations that correspond to disruption in same group
determine the molecular identity of a gene based only on its mutant phenotype
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