Plant development

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  1. Cotelydons
    embryonic leaves
  2. Hypocotyl
    embryonic stem
  3. Radical
    embryonic root
  4. Primary inflorescence
    stem with more than one flower group
  5. Growth
    increase in size through cell division/ expansion
  6. Celuular differentiation
    generation of cellular diversity
  7. Morphogenesis
    overall aqusition of form and shape
  8. Pattern formation
    prcoesss generating a particular spatial arrangement of cell types and tissues
  9. Housekeeping proteins
    keep cells alive and functioning
  10. Cell type/Tissue specific protiens
    only in some cells. allow that cell to carry out a certian function
  11. Morphogen
    Chemical whose concentration varies which is involved in pattern formation and to which cells respond differently to based on thresholds
  12. Primary growth
    growth that occurs near the tips or root/shoot apical meristems.
  13. Epidermis
    outermost layer for protection and interaction with the enviornment
  14. Ground tissue
    Photosynthetic portion, storage, support
  15. Vasular tissue
    transport long distant and support
  16. Xylem
    H2O and minerals move from root to shoot.
  17. Pholem
    move products of photosythesis down the plant
  18. What are 3 structurally independent but interactin networks in the cell wall.
    • 1. cellulose microfibrils and cross linking hemicellulose.
    • 2. matrix pectin
    • 3. structural proteins (lignin in secondary growth
  19. What are the 3 structures of the cell wall?
    • 1. Cellulose microfibrils
    • 2. hemicellulose
    • 3. pectin
  20. What are the 4 functions of the cell wall?
    • 1. strength and support for the body
    • 2. allows for growth and expansion
    • 3. protect cell contents
    • 4. regulates uptake and release of substances
  21. What is the most dominate form of growth in Arabidopsis?
  22. What are the two types of growth that can occur in plants?
    primary and secondary
  23. What are the two wasy cell division can be asymmetric?
    by size or by unequal distribution of molecules
  24. What are the two levels on cell control?
    transcriptional and gene specific
  25. What are the two types of proteins that control the cell?
    housekeeping and cell/tissue specific
  26. What are the three different behaviors of cells?
    • 1. cell division
    • 2. cell expansion
    • 3.cell-cell signaling
  27. What are the four basic processes of development?
    • 1. growth
    • 2. cell differentiation
    • 3. morphogenesis
    • 4. pattern formation
  28. What are the four basic principles of development?
    • 1. involves four basic processes
    • 2. the four processes involve different cell behaviors
    • 3. the behavior are controlled by proteins made in the cell
    • 4. development is a process
    • 5. the fate of the cell is a consequence of its linage and postion
    • 6. pattern formation can involve the interpretation of postion info
    • 7. asymmetric divison make cells different form each other
  29. What is alternation of generation/
    plants have a diploid (spore) and hapliod (gamete) phases
  30. What are the three tools of the model organism?
    • 1. sequences in genes in its gene
    • 2. insertional mutant lines
    • 3. whole genome micorarrys
  31. Cell wall
    rigid network of polysaccharides and proteins which suuround a plant cell
  32. Apoplastic transport
    transport into the cell wall
  33. Apoplast
    everthing outside of the the PM
  34. Symplastic transport
    direct transport of molecules between cytoplasms of two cells that are linked by plasmadesmata
  35. What is the structure of a plasmadesmata?
    lined with pm with desmatubule(ER) running through
  36. Plasmadesmat
    pm lined channels between cells. are gated and have size excelusion
  37. Plasmadesmata allow for the the transport of ____ info between cell.
  38. Transcellular transport
    enter and exiting the cell across the pm
  39. Foward genetics
    identifies all gens involved in a process
  40. Reverse genetics
    use to determine a function of a particular gene
  41. What are the four steps in forward genetics?
    • 1. perform mutagensis
    • 2. screen for the mutants that have a particular phenotype
    • 3. Perform detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization
    • 4. identify gene dirupted mutant
  42. What are the four steps for seed mutagenesis for foward genetics?
    • 1. treat seeds with mutagen (M1 seeds)
    • 2. Plant M1 seeds and give rise to M1 plants (look WT)
    • 3. collect M2 seeds
    • 4. plant M2 and look through M2 plants for mutant phenotype
  43. What are the two ways the mutagenize a seed for forward genetics?
    • 1. EMS= chemical, single nucleotide changed
    • 2. electormagnetic radiation=chromosome deletion/breakage which lead to inversion, deletions, and translocations
  44. What are the two steps to genetic characterization for forward genetics?
    • 1. backcross to WT plant
    • 2. determine complementation groups
  45. Why sould you backcross in FG and how?
    • why= there may be more than 1 mutation in a given plant
    • how=cross mutant to wt
    • f1 hetero for mutation(wt), f2 identify mutation repeat ~ 3x
  46. Why determine complementation groups in FG and how?
    • why= determine how many genes you have identified
    • how= cross mutant with each other and look at f1
  47. Complementation group
    mutations that correspond to disruption in same group
  48. Map-Based Cloning
    determine the molecular identity of a gene based only on its mutant phenotype
Card Set:
Plant development
2011-09-06 14:25:45

test 1
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