Bio Psyc Exam 1

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jax12
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100088
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Bio Psyc Exam 1
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2011-09-07 19:21:13
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bio psyc
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cells of the nervous system, evolutionary terms,mind-brain behavior
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  1. biological psychology
    the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience.
  2. physiological explanation
    relates a behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs.
  3. ontogenetic explanation
    describes how a structure or behavior develops, including the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions.
  4. evolutionary explanation
    reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure of behavior.
  5. functional explanation
    describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.
  6. mind-body/mind-brain problem
    What is the relationship between the mind and the brain?
  7. dualism
    belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently.
  8. monism
    belief that the universe consists of only one kind of substance.
  9. materialism
    vew that everything that exists is material or physical.
  10. mentalism
    view that only the mind really exists and that the physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it.
  11. identity position
    view that mental processes and certain kinds of brain processes are the same thing described in different terms.
  12. problem of other minds
    difficulty of knowing whether other people (or animals) have conscious experiences.
  13. hard problem
    concerns why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness.
  14. RNA
    single strang chemical; serves as a template for the synthesis of protein molecules.
  15. enzymes
    biological catalysts that regulate chemical reaction in the body.
  16. monozygotic
    from one egg.
  17. dizygotic
    from two eggs.
  18. sex-linked genes
    genes located on the sex chromosomes.
  19. autosomal genes
    all other chromosomes' genes.
  20. sex-limited genes
    genes present in both sexes.
  21. phynylketonuria
    • genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phynylalanine.
    • if not treated can lead to mental retardation.
  22. evolution
    a change over generations in the frequencies of various genes in a population.
  23. Lamarckian evolution
    • inheritance of acquired characteristics;
    • if you exercise your arm muscles your children will be born with bigger arm muscles.
  24. evolutionary psychology
    deals with how behaviors have evolved especially social behaviors.
  25. reciprocal altruism
    idea that individuals help those who will return the favor.
  26. multiplier effect
    • if genetic influences produce a small increase in some activity, the early tendency will change the enrironment in a way that magnifies that tendency.
    • genes present ->increase of tendency ->environment that facilitates ->increase of tendency
  27. neurons
    receive info and transmit it to other cells
  28. santiago ramon y cajal
    used staining techniques to show a small gap separates the tips of one neuron's fibers from another.
  29. membrane
    composed of 2 layers of fat molecules with protein molecules that let things in and out of a cell.
  30. nucleus
    • all animal cells have;
    • structure that contains the chromosomes
  31. mitochondrion
    powerhouse of the cell provides energy.
  32. ribosomes
    sites at which the cell makes new proteins.
  33. endoplasmic reticulum
    network of thin tubes that transport newly made proteins to other locations.
  34. motor neuron
    has it's soma (cell body) in the spinal cord.
  35. sensory neuron
    specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of stimulation.
  36. dendrites
    branching fibers that get narrower towards their ends.
  37. dendritic spines
    outgrowths on the dendrites to increase surface area.
  38. nodes of Ranvier
    • unmyelinated parts of an axon.
    • have sodium channels.
  39. presynaptic terminal
    • end bulb/bouton
    • point from which the axon releases chemicals that cross the junction between one neuron and the next.
  40. afferent axon
    • brings information into a structure. (arrival)
    • sensory neurons
  41. efferent axon
    • carries info away from a structure. (exit)
    • motor neurons
  42. intrinsic/interneuron neurons
    a cell's dendrites and axon are entirely contained within a single structure
  43. glia
    • do not transmit info.
    • exchange chemicals with adjacent neurons.
  44. microglia
    remove waste material and viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms.
  45. astrocytes
    • remove waste material created with neurons die and control the amount of blood flow to each brain area.
    • synchronizes the activity of axons allowing them to send messages in waves.
  46. oligodendrocytes
    help build myelin sheaths around the axons.
  47. Schwann cells
    help build myelin sheaths around the axons.
  48. radial glia
    guide the migration of neurons and their axons and dendrites during embryonic development.
  49. Blood BRain Barrier
    lines the walls of blood vessels in the brain keeping out most viruses and infections but also many nutrients.
  50. active transport
    protein mediated process that expends energy to pump chemical sfrom the blood into the brain. (glucose, amino acids, purines, wholin, vitamins, iron...)
  51. glucose
    a simple sugar, brain food.
  52. thiamine
    • chemical necessary for the use of glucose.
    • deficiency can lead to death of neurons and Korsakoff's syndrome.
  53. polarization
    a difference in electrical charge between 2 locations.
  54. resting potential
    difference involtage in a resting neuron.
  55. electrical gradient
    a difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell.
  56. sodium-potassium pump
    • protein complex repeatedly transports three sodium ions out of the cell while drawing two potassium ion into it.
    • active transport system requiring energy.
  57. concentration gradient
    • difference in distribution ions across the membrane.
    • sodium more concentrated outside, potassium more concentrated inside.
  58. hyperpolarization
    • increased polarization.
    • increase in the negative charge e.g. from -70mV to -90mV.
  59. depolarization
    • reducing polarization toward zero.
    • e.g. from -70mV to -50mV
  60. action potential
    any stimulation beyond the threshold regardless of how far beyond causes a rapid depolarization and a slight reversal of the usual polarization until it reaches resting potential again.
  61. threshold of excitation
    stimulation beyond a certain level that causes an action potential.
  62. voltage-gated channels
    membrane channels whose permeability depends on the voltage difference across the membrane.
  63. local anesthetic
    • (Novocain/Zylocaine)
    • attach to the sodium channels of the membrane preventing sodium ions from entering.
  64. all or none law
    the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it.
  65. refractory period
    cell resists the production of further action potentials.
  66. absolute refractory period
    membrane cannot produce an action potential regardless of the stimulation.
  67. relative refractory period
    a stronger than usual stimulus is needed to initiate an action potential.
  68. axon hillock
    where action potential begins.
  69. propogation of an action potential
    describes the transmission of an action potential down an axon.
  70. saltatory conduction
    the jumping of action potentials from node to node.
  71. local neurons
    neurons without axons exchange info only with their closest neighbors.
  72. graded potentials
    membrane potentials that vary in magnitude without following the all or none law.

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