Bio Psyc Exam 1
Card Set Information
Bio Psyc Exam 1
cells of the nervous system, evolutionary terms,mind-brain behavior
the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience.
relates a behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs.
describes how a structure or behavior develops, including the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions.
reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure of behavior.
describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.
What is the relationship between the mind and the brain?
belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently.
belief that the universe consists of only one kind of substance.
vew that everything that exists is material or physical.
view that only the mind really exists and that the physical world could not exist unless some mind were aware of it.
view that mental processes and certain kinds of brain processes are the same thing described in different terms.
problem of other minds
difficulty of knowing whether other people (or animals) have conscious experiences.
concerns why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness.
single strang chemical; serves as a template for the synthesis of protein molecules.
biological catalysts that regulate chemical reaction in the body.
from one egg.
from two eggs.
genes located on the sex chromosomes.
all other chromosomes' genes.
genes present in both sexes.
genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phynylalanine.
if not treated can lead to mental retardation.
a change over generations in the frequencies of various genes in a population.
inheritance of acquired characteristics;
if you exercise your arm muscles your children will be born with bigger arm muscles.
deals with how behaviors have evolved especially social behaviors.
idea that individuals help those who will return the favor.
if genetic influences produce a small increase in some activity, the early tendency will change the enrironment in a way that magnifies that tendency.
genes present ->increase of tendency ->environment that facilitates ->increase of tendency
receive info and transmit it to other cells
santiago ramon y cajal
used staining techniques to show a small gap separates the tips of one neuron's fibers from another.
composed of 2 layers of fat molecules with protein molecules that let things in and out of a cell.
all animal cells have;
structure that contains the chromosomes
powerhouse of the cell provides energy.
sites at which the cell makes new proteins.
network of thin tubes that transport newly made proteins to other locations.
has it's soma (cell body) in the spinal cord.
specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of stimulation.
branching fibers that get narrower towards their ends.
outgrowths on the dendrites to increase surface area.
nodes of Ranvier
unmyelinated parts of an axon.
have sodium channels.
point from which the axon releases chemicals that cross the junction between one neuron and the next.
brings information into a structure. (arrival)
carries info away from a structure. (exit)
a cell's dendrites and axon are entirely contained within a single structure
do not transmit info.
exchange chemicals with adjacent neurons.
remove waste material and viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms.
remove waste material created with neurons die and control the amount of blood flow to each brain area.
synchronizes the activity of axons allowing them to send messages in waves.
help build myelin sheaths around the axons.
help build myelin sheaths around the axons.
guide the migration of neurons and their axons and dendrites during embryonic development.
Blood BRain Barrier
lines the walls of blood vessels in the brain keeping out most viruses and infections but also many nutrients.
protein mediated process that expends energy to pump chemical sfrom the blood into the brain. (glucose, amino acids, purines, wholin, vitamins, iron...)
a simple sugar, brain food.
chemical necessary for the use of glucose.
deficiency can lead to death of neurons and Korsakoff's syndrome.
a difference in electrical charge between 2 locations.
difference involtage in a resting neuron.
a difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell.
protein complex repeatedly transports three sodium ions out of the cell while drawing two potassium ion into it.
active transport system requiring energy.
difference in distribution ions across the membrane.
sodium more concentrated outside, potassium more concentrated inside.
increase in the negative charge e.g. from -70mV to -90mV.
reducing polarization toward zero.
e.g. from -70mV to -50mV
any stimulation beyond the threshold regardless of how far beyond causes a rapid depolarization and a slight reversal of the usual polarization until it reaches resting potential again.
threshold of excitation
stimulation beyond a certain level that causes an action potential.
membrane channels whose permeability depends on the voltage difference across the membrane.
attach to the sodium channels of the membrane preventing sodium ions from entering.
all or none law
the amplitude and velocity of an action potential are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it.
cell resists the production of further action potentials.
absolute refractory period
membrane cannot produce an action potential regardless of the stimulation.
relative refractory period
a stronger than usual stimulus is needed to initiate an action potential.
where action potential begins.
propogation of an action potential
describes the transmission of an action potential down an axon.
the jumping of action potentials from node to node.
neurons without axons exchange info only with their closest neighbors.
membrane potentials that vary in magnitude without following the all or none law.