Patho Exam 1

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Patho Exam 1
2011-09-07 10:54:09

Exam 1 for Patho
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  1. Name the two major functions of cells
    reproduction and making proteins
  2. Three major components of a cell
    • nucleus and nucleolus
    • cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles
    • cytoskeleton
  3. exocytosis
    dischange of cell particles, which are packaged in membrane- bound vesicles, by fusion of the vesicular membrane w/ the plasma membrane and subsequent release of the particles to the exsterior of the cell
  4. Red Blood Cells Start Out with all the organelles:
    as they grow they:
    • produce hemoglobin
    • have enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (b/c it needs to produce the large hemo)
    • have small golgi bodies (b/c their holding alot and not sending it out)
  5. Red Blood Cells Start Out with all the organelles:
    When they are mature, they:
    • lose their endoplasmic reticulum (b/c they made their prduct and aren't making more)
    • lose their mitochondia (b/c they dont make ATP b/c they get energy from anaerobic metabolizom)
    • lose lysosomes (they don't create free radicals)
  6. passive diffusion
    molecules move randomly away from the area where they are most concentrated
  7. osmosis
    • movement of water from region of greater concentration to a region of lesser concentration
    • depends on particle concentration
  8. What way will water move if in the blood there is lots of water and in the cell there is less water?
    • moves into the cell
    • water diffuses from the place with lots of water to the place with less water
    • water follows solutes the "pull" of the particles is oncotic or colloid osmotic
  9. If Na diffuse into the cell, what will water do?
    What will water do if the Na/K pump sends Na back out?
    water will follow Na
  10. Facilitated Diffusion
    molecules diffuse across a membrane WITH HELP by forming a vacuole or attaching to protein
  11. Pinocytosis
    • need something in cell
    • vaccums it in
    • moves it across membrane
    • let it out inside the cell
  12. carrier/transport protein
    • non- lipid soluble molecules need help through the membrane
    • they combine w/ a carrier protein and are carried across in the cell
  13. Active Transport
    • diffusion results in uniform concentration
    • cell processes requires uneven concentration
    • -high concentrations of K are needed to carry out intercellular processes
    • energy (ATP) is used to move substances into or out of the cell for use
  14. Primary Active Transport
    ATP is used directly to move a substance against the concentration gradient
  15. Secondary Active Transport
    • the energy created by primary active transport is harnessed and used to facilitate the transport of a second substance
    • usu involves Na b/c large Na gradients occur frequently in normal metabolism
  16. cell communication
    • a messeneger molecule attaches to receptor proteins on cells surface
    • receptors span the cells membrane (messengers hook up and send message)
  17. signal tansduction
    message is converted and moved across the membrane to effect a change w/in the cell
  18. up- regulation
    more receptors are present when low levels of messengers are available
  19. down- regulation
    few receptors are available when high levels of messengers are present
  20. G- protein linked receptors
    • second messenger- turn on internal cellular systems
    • (activate receptors of membrane and that activates something in the cell)
  21. Enzyme linked receptors
    mediate cellular responses (hormones)
  22. ion channel linked receptors
    rapid synaptic signaling (neurotransmitters)
  23. Ion Channels
    • rapid ion exchange is needed for cellular process
    • the electical change of ions such as Na and K make it difficult for these to pass through the lipid membrane
    • special protein channels span the width of the lipid membrane
    • the proteins undergo conformational changes to form open channels for a selected ion
  24. non- gated (leak) channel
    open and about the gradient
  25. ligand gated channel
    • need something to open ligand and let things in
    • ex. hormone
  26. cell metabolism
    the processs that provdies fuel for cellular processes. Converts proteins, carbs, and fats to ATP: ENERGY
  27. anaerobic
    w/o oxygen in the cytoplasm
  28. aerobic
    w/ oxygen in the mitochondia