A&P ch 1

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Author:
gmann86
ID:
100134
Filename:
A&P ch 1
Updated:
2011-09-06 18:08:37
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Description:
Airways and Alveoli
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  1. What are the conducting airways?
    • Tubes that connect outside air with gas exchange membrane in lungs.
    • Pathway for air to move.
  2. Important function of Upper Airways.
    • Warms
    • Humidifies
    • Filters
  3. Parts of the nose?
    • Nares: Smallest diameter in upperairway.
    • Vibrissae
    • Nasal Septum
    • Nasal fossae
    • Chonanae
    • Turbinates
  4. Parts of the Pharynx
    • Pharynx: Behind nasal cavity and extends to larynx.
    • Nasopharynx: Behind nasal cavity down to soft palate
    • Oropharynx: Behind oral cavity from soft palate to base of tongue
    • Laryngopharynx: Below base of tongue and above larynx
  5. Larynx
    • Cartilaginous cylindrical structure
    • Acts as a valve at entrance to trachea (glottis: opening into trachea)
    • Containing a vocal cords
    • Thryoid cartilage (main cartilage of larynx)
  6. Vocal cords
    Rima glottidis or glottis. Can open and close. Helps generate pressure to cough.

    • Vocal cord edema (croup; stridor)
    • Laryngeal reflex( laryngospasm)
  7. Trachea
    • 8-20 ventrally C-shaped cartilages
    • From c6 to t5 (behind angle of louis)
    • 11cm long in adults
    • 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter
  8. Carina
    • Bifurcation of trachea into right and left bronchi
    • right broncus at 20-30 degree from midline
    • left broncus at 45-55 degree from midline
    • air is 100% saturated and at 37C at this point.
  9. Terminal Bronchioles
    • Contain less than 1mm in diameter
    • Contain no cartilage
    • Contain bronchial smooth muscle
    • Smooth muscle contractions can nearly close the bronchioles (Broncospasm and bronchoconstriction)

    Terminal bronchioles branch to form respiratory bronchioles
  10. Conducting Airway histology
    • Mucous secreting epithelium lines lumen of airway
    • Basement membrane is next
    • Lamina propria contains: Smooth muscle, elastic fibers, blood vessels, nerves.
    • Epithelium + Lamina propria = Respiratory Mucosa
  11. Submucosa
    • Below mucosa
    • contain mucous glands (submucosal glands)
  12. Adventitia
    • Surrounds cartilaginous airways and blood vessels
    • Ends at bronchioles
  13. Mucociliary Clearance
    1. Ciliated epithelial cells

    • 2. Mucous blanks
    • Two layers of mucus: gel and sol

    • 3. Cilia reach into gel layer exert rapid, forward stroke
    • pull gel and layer toward pharynx

    • 4. Impairment
    • Cigarette smoke
    • airpollution
    • dehydration
  14. Nonepithelial Cells
    Eosinophils - Associated with asthma caused by allergens

    Neutrophils - Associated with bacterial infections

    Migrate to airways to phagocytize bacteria

    Mast cells - On ephithelial surface of airways. mediators of inflammation released from granules
  15. Epithelial chloride channel
    • Movement of water into airway lumen
    • Mechanism: Chloride
    • 1. (Cl-) ion is secrted into airway through Cl- channel
    • 2. Sodium (Na+) follows Cl- to maintain electrical neutrally.
    • 3. Water follows Na+ into airway lumen, hydrating mucus and faciliating ciliary function.
  16. Alveoli and Capillaries.
    • 300 million alveoli in adult lungs:
    • 50-100 m2 gas exchange area
    • 100 to 300 microns (um) in diameter

    • Pulmonary Capillaries:
    • in contact with aveolar membrane
    • just large enough to follow passage of red blood cells
    • faciliatate gas exchange.
  17. Alveolar Capillary Membrane (AC membrane)
    • Thin blood air barrier:
    • less than 0.5 um thick

    • Composed of:
    • Alveolar epithelium
    • epithelial basement membrane fused with endothelial basement membrane
    • capillary endothelium
  18. Type I and Type II Cells
    • Type I epithelial cells:
    • comprise most of alveolar surface area
    • extremely flat

    • Type II epithelial cells:
    • compact, polygonal shaped
    • protrude into alveolar airspace
    • contain lamellar bodies
    • secrete surfactant.

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