Chapter 32:Animals

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dante01
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100149
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Chapter 32:Animals
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2011-09-07 02:51:11
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  1. acoelomate
    An animal that lacks an internal body cavity (coelom)
  2. germ layers
    In animals, one of the three basic types of tissue formed during gastrulation; gives rise to all other tissues
  3. hemimetabolous metamorphosis
    A type of metamorphosis in which the animal increases in size from one stage to the next, but does not dramatically change its body form. Also called incomplete metamorphosis.
  4. holometabolous metamorphosis
    A type of metamorphosis in which the animal completely changes its form. Also called complete metamorphosis.
  5. lophotrochozoan
    • A major lineage of protostomes (Liphotrochozoa) that grow by extending the size of their skeletons rather than by molting. Many phyla have a specialized feeding structure (lophophore) and/or cilitated larvae (trochophore).
    • 1.Rotifers
    • 2.Flatworms
    • 3.Segmented worms
    • 4.Molluscs
  6. ecdysozoans
    • A major lineage of protostomes (Ecdysozoam) that grow by shedding their external skeletons (molting) and expanding their bodies.
    • 1.arthropods
    • 2.insects
    • 3.crustaceans
    • 4.nematodes
    • 5.centipedes
  7. medusa
    The free-floating stage in the life cycle of some cnidarians
  8. Mesoderm
    The middle of the three basic cell layers in most animal embryos; gives rise to muscles, bones, blood, and some internal organs (kidney, spleen,etc.).
  9. Ectoderm
    The outermost of the three basic cell layers in most animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and nervous system
  10. Mollusks
    Lophtrochozoan: Mollusca. Trioblastic/Bilaterally symmetric Protosomes
  11. oviparous
    Producing eggs that are laid outside the body where they develop and hatch.
  12. ovoviviparous
    Producing eggs that are retained inside the body until they are ready to hatch.
  13. viviparous
    producing live young (instead of eggs) that develop within the body of the mother before birth(Live Bearing)
  14. what defines an animal?
    • 1.muticellular
    • 2.Move voluntarily
    • 3.Heterotroph
    • 4. Respond rapidly to stimuli
  15. are slime molds multicellular?
    Only during reproductive phase
  16. Diploblasts
    animals whose embryo have two types of tissue
  17. Germ layers are only found in?
    diploblasts
  18. two groups of animal that are diploblasts
    • 1.Cnidaria(jellyfish,corals)
    • 2.Ctenophora(comb jellies)
  19. Proifera
    • 1.sponges
    • -benthic
    • -filter feeder
    • -asymmetrical
    • -specialized cells lack neurons
    • sessile,
    • multicelluar
  20. Cnidarians have nerve net?
    Yes, cnidarians and ctenophoresmhave have nerve net because they are radially symmetric..need nerves around entire body
  21. Radial symmetry
    at least two planes of symmetry..if were to cut diagonal, would be identical
  22. why was the evolution of a body cavity important?
    -coelem:enclosed, fluid-filled cavity, creates a container for the circulation of oxygen and nurtients
  23. Do cnidarians and ctenophores have a coelem?
    No
  24. why was the coelom a critically important innovation during animal evolution?
    -because an enclosed, fluid-filed chamber, can act as an efficient hydrostatic skeleton
  25. What did the evolution of the coelom provide for animals?
    the evolution of the coelom gave bilaterally symmetric organism the ability to move effeiciently in search of food
  26. Protostomes
    "first-Mouth", in which the mouth develops before the anus
  27. deuterostomes
    "second mouth". in which the anus develops before the mouth
  28. Vast majority of animals are_____and humans are________
    vast majority of animal species are protosomeshumans are deuterostomes
  29. Tube within a tube design
    -the inner tube is the gut, the outer tube forms the body wall
  30. Worms
    animals that have long, thin, tubelike bodies that lacks limbs
  31. The closest living relatives of animals
    • coanoflagellates(protists)
    • they are not multicellular because they are not animals
  32. choanocytes
    Sponge feeding cells
  33. Which evolved first...bilateral or radial symmetry?
    Radial symmetry
  34. Platyhelminthes
    • protostomes that lack coelom
    • 1.Flatworms
    • 2.tapeworms.
  35. what triggered the diversification of species within each lineage?
    the evolution of innovative methods for sensing the environment
  36. which symmetry are sponges mostly?
    asymmetrical but some are radial
  37. totipotent
    small groups of adult cells have the capacity to develop into a complete adult organism
  38. how was the evolution of mesoderm associated with the evolution of coelom?
    mesoderm made it possible for an enclosed, muscle-lined cavity to develop, creating a coelom
  39. animals with what type of symmetry underwent cephalization?
    bilateral
  40. the evolution of bilateral symmetry provided for_____and triggered______
    efficient movement and triggered the development of cephalization
  41. Cnidarian
    • 1.Jellyfish, corals, anemones
    • -cnidocyte:stinging cell
    • -radially symmmetry
    • -first animal with tissues
    • -alternation of generation
  42. Ctenphora
    • Comb Jellies
    • -not radially symmetric
  43. Rotifer
    • Lophotrochozaons:Rotifera
    • -Lives in pond water/soil
  44. Tubellarians
    • Lophotrochozoans:Platyhelminthes
    • -free living flat worms
  45. Cestodes
    • Lophotrochozoans:Platyhelminthes
    • -endoparasitic tapeworms
    • -no gut,stomach,mouth or digestive tract
  46. Trematodes
    • Lophotrochozoans:Platyhelminthes
    • -endo-or ectoprarsitic flukes
    • -can have multiple host species
  47. Annelida
    • 1.Segmented worms
    • -very diverse
    • -most are free living
  48. two forms of annelida
    • 1.polychaeta-"feet"
    • 2.Clitellata-"no feet"
  49. Oligochaeta
    earthworms
  50. major lineages of mollusks
    • 1.chitons
    • 2.bivalves
    • 3. gastropods
    • 4.cephlapods
  51. Chiton
    • Polyplacophora
    • 1.use radula to scrape radula off algae
    • 2.Brightly colored shells
    • 3.Most primitive in phyla
    • 4.Open circulatory system
  52. Gastropoda
    • both aquatic and terrestrial
    • -snails/slugs
    • General body plan:
    • 1.Foot to glide along
    • 2.visceral mass
  53. aplysia
    • sea hare
    • -have the biggest nerve cell
  54. cephalopoda
    • 1.squid
    • 2.cuttlefish
    • 3.octopus
    • 4.nautilus
    • -have closed circulatory system(Only Mollusks)
  55. Ecdysozoans:nematoda
    • Roundworms
    • -unsegemented
    • -pseudocoelom
    • -cuticle-live in extremely diverse habitats
  56. Mollusk lineages
    • 1.bivalves (clams, oysters)
    • 2.gastropods (snails, slugs),
    • 3.chitons,
    • 4.cephalopods (squid, octopuses).
  57. Mollusk body plan
    • Distinguished by a body plan with three
    • main parts:
    • 1.a muscular foot
    • 2.a visceral mass
    • 3.a mantle
  58. Protostome Lineages
    • 1.Lophotrochozoan
    • 2.Ecdysozoan
  59. Nautilus
    • 1.Most primitive cephalopods
    • 2.eye is basically a hole
    • 3.Has siphon:takes water in and uses it to move
    • 4.Have chromatophores: have changing pigmentation

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