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long distance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph
which gland produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty?
Which gland is a storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamusof the brain?
Which gland produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics?
which gland produces steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids?
differerntiate glucagon and insulin
glucagon targets liver, releases glucose into blood
insulin lowers sugar levels inhibits glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis
which gland produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ?
funnel-shaped structure on the stalk of the pituitary gland
growth hormones target what glands?
bone and muscle
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) target what gland?
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) targets which gland?
cortex of adrenal gland
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) targets what gland?
Luteinizing hormone (LH) targets what gland?
Female reproductive tract
Prolactin (PRL) targets what gland?
what is caused by hyposecretion of the growth hormone?
what is caused by hypersecretion of the growth hormone?
what is caused by the hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone?
what is caused by hyposecretion of the thyroxine?
what is caused by the hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids?
what is caused by hyposecretion of insulin?
what is the result of cortisone excess?
what results from deficits in both glucocorticoids and mineralocortiods?
What is hypothyroidism in adults?
What is hypothyroidism in children?
What results from hyperthyroidism?
Which gland is the size and shape of a pea;produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands?
Which gland controls the fight-or-flight reaction?
which gland produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body?
Which gland produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue?
which gland produces the body's major metabolic hormones?
What are the antagonistic hormones that regulate calcium levels in the blood?
Insulin and Glucagon
What hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones?
What system can override any and all hormone controls?
Which endocrine gland produces hormones that affect the normal development of the immune response?
Which type of hormones exert their effects through intracellular second messenger systems?
What are the 3 categories of endocrine gland stimulus?
Humoral, neural, and hormonal
Target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction depends on what three factors?
1. blood level of hormone
2. reletive number of receptors in target cell
3. affinity of attraction between hormone and target cell
Which of the hormones studied is regulated by a positive feedback mechanism?
What is the effect of alcohol on ADH?
prevent secretion of ADH from pituitary gland which results in water and sodium loss and subsequent diuresis
target cells form more receptors in response to the hormone
target cells lose receptors in response to the hormone
What must a target cell have in order to respond to a hormone?
thyroid hormone enters a cell by what process? and what other group of hormones enters the cell in the same manner?
diffuse; steroid hormone
Which of the adrenal medulla catecholamine hormones is released during the alarm phase for the fight-or-flight response?
Which of the 3 endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients?
What are the major targets of growth hormones?
bones and skeletal muscles
how do parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium?
targets bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
Steroid based hormones (corticosteroids) are released by the _____.
Which two hormones regulate blood calcium levels? What is the action of each?
parathyroid gland- Which gland produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue
calcitonin-plays a role in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorous. It is naturally present in the body to control levels of these minerals in the blood
What are the 6 hormone-producing structures that are not endocrine glands?