a&p 2

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  1. long distance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph
  2. which gland produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty?
  3. Which gland is a storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamusof the brain?
    pituitary gland
  4. Which gland produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics?
  5. which gland produces steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids?
    Adrenal gland
  6. differerntiate glucagon and insulin
    • glucagon targets liver, releases glucose into blood
    • insulin lowers sugar levels inhibits glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis
  7. which gland produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ?
  8. funnel-shaped structure on the stalk of the pituitary gland
  9. growth hormones target what glands?
    bone and muscle
  10. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) target what gland?
  11. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) targets which gland?
    cortex of adrenal gland
  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) targets what gland?
  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH) targets what gland?
    Female reproductive tract
  14. Prolactin (PRL) targets what gland?
    Milk production
  15. what is caused by hyposecretion of the growth hormone?
    Pituitary dwarfism
  16. what is caused by hypersecretion of the growth hormone?
  17. what is caused by the hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone?
    diabetes insipidus
  18. what is caused by hyposecretion of the thyroxine?
  19. what is caused by the hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids?
  20. what is caused by hyposecretion of insulin?
    Diabetes mellitus
  21. what is the result of cortisone excess?
    Cushing's disease
  22. what results from deficits in both glucocorticoids and mineralocortiods?
    Addison's disease
  23. What is hypothyroidism in adults?
  24. What is hypothyroidism in children?
  25. What results from hyperthyroidism?
    Grave's disease
  26. Which gland is the size and shape of a pea;produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands?
    Pituitary Gland
  27. Which gland controls the fight-or-flight reaction?
    Adrenal gland
  28. which gland produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body?
  29. Which gland produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue?
    Parathyroid gland
  30. which gland produces the body's major metabolic hormones?
  31. What are the antagonistic hormones that regulate calcium levels in the blood?
    Insulin and Glucagon
  32. What hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones?
    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
  33. What system can override any and all hormone controls?
    Nervous System
  34. Which endocrine gland produces hormones that affect the normal development of the immune response?
  35. Which type of hormones exert their effects through intracellular second messenger systems?
    amino-acid based
  36. What are the 3 categories of endocrine gland stimulus?
    Humoral, neural, and hormonal
  37. Target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction depends on what three factors?
    • 1. blood level of hormone
    • 2. reletive number of receptors in target cell
    • 3. affinity of attraction between hormone and target cell
  38. Which of the hormones studied is regulated by a positive feedback mechanism?
  39. What is the effect of alcohol on ADH?
    prevent secretion of ADH from pituitary gland which results in water and sodium loss and subsequent diuresis
  40. target cells form more receptors in response to the hormone
  41. target cells lose receptors in response to the hormone
  42. What must a target cell have in order to respond to a hormone?
    specific receptor
  43. thyroid hormone enters a cell by what process? and what other group of hormones enters the cell in the same manner?
    diffuse; steroid hormone
  44. Which of the adrenal medulla catecholamine hormones is released during the alarm phase for the fight-or-flight response?
  45. Which of the 3 endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients?
    hormonal stimulation
  46. What are the major targets of growth hormones?
    bones and skeletal muscles
  47. how do parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium?
    targets bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
  48. Steroid based hormones (corticosteroids) are released by the _____.
    Adrenal Cortex
  49. Which two hormones regulate blood calcium levels? What is the action of each?
    parathyroid gland- Which gland produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue

    calcitonin-plays a role in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorous. It is naturally present in the body to control levels of these minerals in the blood
  50. What are the 6 hormone-producing structures that are not endocrine glands?
    • Heart
    • Kindeys
    • Skin
    • Adipose tissue
    • Skeleton
    • Thymus
Card Set
a&p 2
endocrine system
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