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Aminoglycosides kill the ________ cell by affecting ______ _______.
- protein synthesis
Aminoglycosides are effective against ______ gram-______ infections.
Aminoglycosides are used to sterilize ____ prior to surgery.
Aminoglycosides are used to destroy _____-producing bacteria to prevent absorption of _______ in hepatic ___________.
- hepatic encephalopathy (is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood)
Aminoglycosides are used in infections caused by:
- E. Coli
- (Also active against protozoal infections)
When dealing with Aminoglycosides some common meds are:
_______ is the prototype for aminoglycosides antibiotic.
___ route is the preferred for optimal distribution to tissue, but may be use ___.
When dealing with aminoglycoside oral route is _____ absorbed so effective orally only to cleanse ____ prior to surgery to eliminate bacteria in ____ or to prevent absorption of _______ in hepatic encephalopathy.
What other 2 routes can be used b/c of poor penetration of CSF by other routes?
When dealing with aminoglycosides a contraindication is if the pt has preexisting ____ disease, _________ _____, and _______ and ______ (use cautiously)
my-as-the-nia gravis (a neuromuscular disorder. Neuromuscular disorders involve the muscles and the nerves that control them)
pregnancy and lactation
Contraindications for aminoglycosides are concurrent orders for renal toxic agents such as: (list 3)
- Ampho-teri-cin B (Fungizone)
- Vancomycin (Vancocin)
- Loop diuretics as Furosemide (Lasix)
When dealing with significant drug interactions, Aminoglycosides may be microbiologically inactivated with concurrently high concentrations of ________ greater than ____mcg/mL.
When dealing with aminoglycosides do not mix other __________ in the same ___ fluid.
With oral anticoagulant therapy, bleeding may increase b/c aminoglycosides decrease Vitamin __ synthesis in the _______ tract.
When dealing with significant drug interactions of aminoglycosides, concurrent administration of __________ (_______) may mask signs of toxicity.
What lab studie determine that toxic levels do not occur?
Peak drug level
what lab studie assures that theraputic levels of drug are maintained b/t doses?
Trough drug leve
____ _____ _____ ( ) is used to monitor effectiveness of drug therapy.
White Blood Count (WBC)
_______ and immature neutrophils, called ____ or ____, are increased in acute bacterial infections.
Neutrophils and lymphocytes make up ___% to ___% of leukocytes; when one part of the differential increases, as in response to an acute infection, another part has to decrease; a "____ to the___" signifies an increase in neutrophils and, therefore, an acute bacterial infection.
- 75% to 90%
- shift to the left
What 2 lab studies monitor renal function?
- serum creatinine
- blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Out of creatinine and BUN test which one is most specific test for renal function?
If creatinine level rises 3 to 4 days into treatment what does that indicate?
renal damage has occured
List 4 side effects for aminoglycosides:
- paresthesia (a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin with no apparent long-term physical effect)
- skin rash
When dealing with aminoglycoside's adverse effects/toxicity, __________ and __________ are two common toxicities associated with therapy with aminoglycosides and occurs when _____ levels are elevated.
Neuromuscular blockade: secondary to inhibition of _________ release; may be seen in clients with _________ _____ or clients receiving neuromuscular blocking agents as ________ _____ (_____) or __________ (________); use ______ salts to reverse the blockade.
- myasthenia gravis
- Pan-cur-o-nium bromide (Pavulon)
- Succinyl-choline (Anectine)
________ is known as a secondary infection caused by eradication of normal flora.
List 2 superinfections:
- Pseudomembranous colitis
Candidiasis is a secondary infection usually of ___ and ____ _______ caused by ______ _____.
- mucous membranes
- Candida albicans
Candidiasis is often associated with __________.
Pseudomembranous colitis is a secondary infection of the ____ usually caused by ________ ______.
- Clostridium difficile
Normal creatine levels are?
Normal BUN levels are?
- 0.8 t0 1.6 mg/dL
- 8 to 22 mg/dL
Take oral ________ on an empty stomach, __ to __ hours before any meal or other drugs.
When administring a med you need to know:
- drug name
- administration schedule
- whether to take with food or without food.