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Sub groups of protosomes
what is a Lophotrochozoan?
- a)Lophophores function in suspension feeding in adults
- b)Trochophore larvae swim and may feed
do all Lophotrochozoans have lophophores and trochophores?
Groups of Lophotrochozoans
- -Live in pond water/soil-live in damp soils
- -have coelom
- -most production by unfertilized eggs;parthogenesis
- -both asexual and sexual
Types of Platyhelminthes
- 1.Tubellarians:Free living flat worms
- 2.Cestodes:Endoparasitic tapeworms
- 3.Trematodes:Endo-orectoparasitic flukes
whats special about Cestodes?
They have no gut, stomach, mouth or digestive system
What can tremadoes have?
- -Segmented worms
- -Very diverse group
More about Tubellarians
- -most prey on protists or small animals
- -some swim by undulating thier bodies
- -can reproduce asexually by splitting themselves in half
- -most reproduce sexually contain both male and female organs
Two forms of Annelida
- 2.Clitellata:"no feet"
Types of Mollusks
- 1.bivalves(clams and mussles)
- 2.gastropods(slugs and snails)
- 4.cephalopods(squid and octopuses)
Major characteristics of Mollusks
- 1.Mantle-Secretes the shell
- 2.Muscular foot-used for movement
- 3.Visceral Mass-holds the organs
- Both aquatic and terrestrial
Types of Cephalopods
what it an Ecdysozoan?
shell or cuticle that sheds
Groups of Edysozoans
- 4.Live in extremely diverse habitats
- ex.Vinegar eels
Roles of Coelom
- 1. providing space for fluids to circulate and
- 2.providing a hydrostatic skeleton for movement
How do ecdyzoans grow?
all ecdysozoans grow by molting
all protosomes are________and________symmetric
all protosomes are triploblastic and bilaterally symmetric
Arthopod Body Plan
- 1.have segemented bodies orgnized into prominent regions called tagamta
- 2.jointed limbs
- 3.exoskelton made of polysaccharide chitin
- 5.Paired appendages
- 6.Open circulatory system
arthopods have a a spacious body cavity called the hemocoel that provides space for internal organs and circulation of fluids
Tube where water is forced out during jet propulsion
the production of unfertilized eggs, by mitosis, that develops into offspring
new adaptations allowed protosomes to
- 1.exchange gases
- 2. avoid drying out
Coelom in Mollusks
the coelom is much reduced in mollusks and functions only in reproduction and excretion of wastes
arthopods have reduced coelem but an extesive body cavity called hemocoel
why is it logical that platyheminthes have flattend bodies?
-A flat body provides a surface area gas exchange; which compensates for their lack of gas exchange organs
why is it logical to observe that mollusks have a drastically reduced coelom or no coelom at all?
they have a muscular foot and visceral mass that fufill the functions of the coelom
- -coelem and tube within tube body plan
- -most are tiny
How do earthworms and round worms exchange gases?
roundworms and earth worms exchange gases across their body surface. They have high surface area to volume ration ,which increases the effiency of gas exchange
- -flatworms lack a coelem and are unsegmented -flatworms have a digestive tract that is blind, one opening ingestion and digestion
- -flatworms do not move much
Obstacles to overcome;transition to land
- -Resistant to water
- -No chitin
Groups of Arthopoda
- -Ecdysozoans: Arthopoda
- 1.Centipedes:some ae venomous, 2 legs per segment
- 2.Millipedes:vegetarian, 4 legs per segment
Insect defining characteristics
- -3 main body parts
- -Wingless Insects
- Ex.Butterflies, moths
- -one functional wing
- -Big wings "membrane-winged"
- Ex.Ants, bees, moths
- -diverse behavior;selfless
- -Chelicerae:Pair of appendages:used for feeding,defense, movement
- -8 legs
- ex.Spiders, scorpions-book lungs
- Ex. Shrimps, lobsters, crabs, barnacles
Crustacean Body Plan
- -Divided in two distinct regions
- 1.cephalothorax:combines the head and thorax
- 2.The abdomen-Only type of arthropod with two pairs of antennae-more related to insects
- 3.calcified exoskeleton
- 4.Variable number of legs;10
Major groups Chelicerates
- 5.Daddy long legs
- 6.Horshoe crabs
An adaptation central to the water-to-land transition made by animals?
Insects close their respiratory passages to minimize water loss to the environment.Open/close spiracles and minimize water loss.
What reproductive innovations occurred during protosome diversification?
metamorphosis and desiccation resistant egg
The bivalve shell is an adaptation that
reduces predation; when close it protects the mantle, visceral mass, and foot
an animal that lacks a body cavity
The ______is a structure that is used for feeding by sessile lophotrochozoans
-Lophophore; generate small currents of water that bring in food for consumption
- -Competition between juvenile and adult forms by allowing them to exploit different resources.
- Adults concerned with reproduction.
Protosomes face the environment in______direction
Closed circulatory system:
heart, arteries, veins>>>>where gas exchange happens