Chapter 33:Protosomes

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Chapter 33:Protosomes
2011-09-07 03:01:47

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  1. Sub groups of protosomes
    • 1.Lophotrochozoan
    • 2.Ecdyzoan
  2. Protosome
    first mouth
  3. what is a Lophotrochozoan?
    • a)Lophophores function in suspension feeding in adults
    • b)Trochophore larvae swim and may feed
  4. do all Lophotrochozoans have lophophores and trochophores?
  5. Groups of Lophotrochozoans
    • 1.rotifera
    • 2.platyhelminthes
    • 3.annelida
    • 4.Mollusca
  6. Rotifera
    • -Lophotrochozoans
    • -Rotifers
    • -Live in pond water/soil-live in damp soils
    • -have coelom
    • -most production by unfertilized eggs;parthogenesis
    • -both asexual and sexual
  7. Platyhelminthes
    • -Lophotrochozoans
    • -Flatworms
  8. Types of Platyhelminthes
    • 1.Tubellarians:Free living flat worms
    • 2.Cestodes:Endoparasitic tapeworms
    • 3.Trematodes:Endo-orectoparasitic flukes
  9. whats special about Cestodes?
    They have no gut, stomach, mouth or digestive system
  10. What can tremadoes have?
    Multiple hosts
  11. Annelida
    • -Lophotrochozoans
    • -Segmented worms
    • -Very diverse group
  12. More about Tubellarians
    • -most prey on protists or small animals
    • -some swim by undulating thier bodies
    • -can reproduce asexually by splitting themselves in half
    • -most reproduce sexually contain both male and female organs
  13. Two forms of Annelida
    • 1.Polychaeta:"Feet"
    • 2.Clitellata:"no feet"
  14. Oligochaeta
    Earth worms
  15. Types of Mollusks
    • 1.bivalves(clams and mussles)
    • 2.gastropods(slugs and snails)
    • 3.chitons
    • 4.cephalopods(squid and octopuses)
  16. Hirudinea
  17. Major characteristics of Mollusks
    • 1.Mantle-Secretes the shell
    • 2.Muscular foot-used for movement
    • 3.Visceral Mass-holds the organs
  18. Chiton
  19. Gastropoda
    • Both aquatic and terrestrial
    • 1.Snails
    • 2.Slugs
  20. Sea Hare
  21. Types of Cephalopods
    • 1.Squid
    • 2.Cuttlefish
    • 3.Octopus
    • 4.Nautilus
  22. what it an Ecdysozoan?
    shell or cuticle that sheds
  23. Groups of Edysozoans
    • 1.Nematoda(Roundworms)
    • 2.Arthopoda
  24. Nematoda
    • Ecdysozoan
    • -Roundworms
    • 1.Unsegemented
    • 2.Pseudocoelom
    • 3.Cuticle
    • 4.Live in extremely diverse habitats
    • ex.Vinegar eels
  25. Roles of Coelom
    • 1. providing space for fluids to circulate and
    • 2.providing a hydrostatic skeleton for movement
  26. How do ecdyzoans grow?
    all ecdysozoans grow by molting
  27. all protosomes are________and________symmetric
    all protosomes are triploblastic and bilaterally symmetric
  28. Arthopod Body Plan
    • 1.have segemented bodies orgnized into prominent regions called tagamta
    • 2.jointed limbs
    • 3.exoskelton made of polysaccharide chitin
    • 4.Hemocoel
    • 5.Paired appendages
    • 6.Open circulatory system
  29. Hemocoel
    arthopods have a a spacious body cavity called the hemocoel that provides space for internal organs and circulation of fluids
  30. Siphon
    Tube where water is forced out during jet propulsion
  31. Parthogenesis
    the production of unfertilized eggs, by mitosis, that develops into offspring
  32. new adaptations allowed protosomes to
    • gases
    • 2. avoid drying out
  33. Coelom in Mollusks
    the coelom is much reduced in mollusks and functions only in reproduction and excretion of wastes
  34. Arthopod coelom
    arthopods have reduced coelem but an extesive body cavity called hemocoel
  35. why is it logical that platyheminthes have flattend bodies?
    -A flat body provides a surface area gas exchange; which compensates for their lack of gas exchange organs
  36. why is it logical to observe that mollusks have a drastically reduced coelom or no coelom at all?
    they have a muscular foot and visceral mass that fufill the functions of the coelom
  37. Round worms
    • -Ecdysozoans:Nematoda
    • -unsegemented
    • -coelem and tube within tube body plan
    • -most are tiny
  38. How do earthworms and round worms exchange gases?
    roundworms and earth worms exchange gases across their body surface. They have high surface area to volume ration ,which increases the effiency of gas exchange
  39. Flatworms
    • -Lophotrochozoan:Playthelminthes
    • -flatworms lack a coelem and are unsegmented -flatworms have a digestive tract that is blind, one opening ingestion and digestion
    • -flatworms do not move much
  40. Obstacles to overcome;transition to land
    • 2.dessication
    • 3.Dispersal
  41. Epicuticle
    • -Resistant to water
    • -No chitin
  42. Groups of Arthopoda
    • 1.Chelicerates
    • 2.Myriapods
    • 3.Crustaceans
    • 4.Insects
  43. Myriapods
    • -Ecdysozoans: Arthopoda
    • 1.Centipedes:some ae venomous, 2 legs per segment
    • 2.Millipedes:vegetarian, 4 legs per segment
  44. Insect defining characteristics
    • -3 main body parts
    • 1.head
    • 2.thorax
    • 3.Abdomen
  45. Apterygota
    • -Wingless Insects
    • Ex.Silverfish
  46. Lepidoptera
    • "scale-winged"
    • Ex.Butterflies, moths
  47. Diplera
    • "Two-winged"
    • Ex.Flies
    • -one functional wing
    • -halters
  48. Hymenoptera
    • -Big wings "membrane-winged"
    • Ex.Ants, bees, moths
    • -diverse behavior;selfless
  49. Chelicertata
    • -Ecdysozoans:Arthpoda
    • -Chelicerae:Pair of appendages:used for feeding,defense, movement
    • -8 legs
    • ex.Spiders, scorpions-book lungs
  50. Crustaceans
    • Ecdysozoans:Arthropoda
    • Ex. Shrimps, lobsters, crabs, barnacles
  51. Crustacean Body Plan
    • -Divided in two distinct regions
    • 1.cephalothorax:combines the head and thorax
    • 2.The abdomen-Only type of arthropod with two pairs of antennae-more related to insects
    • 3.calcified exoskeleton
    • 4.Variable number of legs;10
  52. Major groups Chelicerates
    • 1.Spiders
    • 2.Mites
    • 3.Ticks
    • 4.scorpions
    • 5.Daddy long legs
    • 6.Horshoe crabs
  53. An adaptation central to the water-to-land transition made by animals?
    Insects close their respiratory passages to minimize water loss to the environment.Open/close spiracles and minimize water loss.
  54. What reproductive innovations occurred during protosome diversification?
    metamorphosis and desiccation resistant egg
  55. The bivalve shell is an adaptation that
    reduces predation; when close it protects the mantle, visceral mass, and foot
  56. acoelomate
    an animal that lacks a body cavity
  57. The ______is a structure that is used for feeding by sessile lophotrochozoans
    -Lophophore; generate small currents of water that bring in food for consumption
  58. Metamorphosis reduces
    • -Competition between juvenile and adult forms by allowing them to exploit different resources.
    • Adults concerned with reproduction.
  59. Protosomes face the environment in______direction
  60. Closed circulatory system:
    heart, arteries, veins>>>>where gas exchange happens