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- 2.Pentaradial symmetric
- 3.Water vascular system
- 4.exclusively marine
- 6.Tube feet:part of the vascualr system, are elongated fluid-filled appendages
- -podia:"feet" sections of the tube feet that project outside the body and make contact with substrate
echinoderm larvae are ______symmetric
How do echinoderms feed?
- -suspension feeding, deposit feeding, or harvesting algae
- -podia play a key role in feeding
- 1.radial symmetry in adults,
- 2. an endoskeleton of calcium carbonate
- 3.water vascualr system
Key Lineages of Echinoderms
- 1.feather stars and sea lilies(Most primitive group)
- 2.sea stars
- 3.brittle stars and basket stars
- 4. sea urchins and sand dollars
- 5. sea cucumbers
What is a Chordate?
- 1.openings into the throat called pharyngeal gill slits
- 2.a dorsal hollow nerve cord that runs the length of the body;coordinate muscle movement
- 3.notochord;stiffens the muscualr tail
- 4.muscular post anal tail
- -together creating a "torpedo", fast swimming animal
Sub Phyla of Chordates
- -Chordata-AKA Tunicates
- -start to lose their notochord and dorsal hollow nerve cord as adults
- -salps:live in open water
- -pharyngeal gill slits to suspension feed
Vertebrate body plan
- -spinal chord instead of dorsal hollow nerve cord
- -pharyngeal pouches instead of pharyngeal gill slits
- -notochord helps organize the body plan
What is a vertebrate?
- distinguished by two synapmorphies:
- 1.vertebrae:column of cartilaginous or bony structures
- 2.a cranium:a bony case that encloses the brain
- 1.forebrain:housing the sense of smell
- 2.midbrain:associated with vision
- 3.Hindbrain:responsible for balance and, in some species hearing
Strong, flexible tissue found in ear and nose
Evolution of Vertebrate
- when bone first evolved it was deposited in scale like plates that formed an exoskeleton
- 2.Bony endoskeleton
- 3.Limbs capable of moving on land
- 4. amniotic egg
Tunicates are the closest living relatives to _______
fishy organism form a grade;a sequence of lineages that are paraphyletic
What are the most species-rich and ecologically diverse lineages among vertebrates?
Ray finned fishes and tetrapods
The radiation of ray-finned fishes was triggered by the _______
Evolution of the jaw
What triggered tetrapod diversification?
involved the ability to move and get food, not to bite it and process it
- -All mammals have mammary glands
Species that produce amniotic eggs lay them where?
outside of water
- 1.Monotremes:Lay eggs
- 2.marsupials: well developed pouch
- 3.Placental or eutherians: well developed placenta and extended pregnancy
- -have leathery beak
- Ex.Platypuses and Echidnas
- Ex.Kangaroos, Koala
- -short embryonic period
- -most species rich and morphologically diverse group of mammals
- Ex.rodents, moles,pigs, deer, dogs, bears, cats, primates, humans
- adaptations to land:
- 2.well developed lungs
- 3.Amniotic eggs
- -snakes=tetrapods, lost legs later on
- 1.lizards and snakes(Lepidosauria)
- 3.crocidiles and alligators
- 4.birds (Aves)
what is the echinoderm endoskeleton made of?
what are the diagnostic traits of vertebrates?
-Vertebrae and cranium
why are pharyngeal jaws found in many ray-finned fishes important?
-They help process food
What lineages make up the living Amniota?
-Reptiles and mammals
What is the relationship between the dorsal hollow nerve cord and the spinal cord?
-The spinal cord is a type of dorsal hollow nerve cord
The bone in early vertebrates formed an______
exoskeleton that served as protection for the organism
what allows females to produce a small number of large, well-developed offspring?
viviparity and the evolution of the placenta
deuterostomes that is most likely to be found in nature?
-Ectotherm that has a swim bladder and protrusible jaws, and carries out external fertilizzation
What pair of features is possessed by all vertebrates at some point in thier life?
Tail and cranium
all deuterostomes are
- 1.have coelom
- 3.similar pattern of early embryonic development
Three classes of fish(Chordates)
Example of Agnatha
-jawless fish Hagfish and Lampreys
Example of chondrichthyes
- -cartilaginous fish
- -most diverse group of vertebrates
- -Mudskipper: fish that likes being on land
- -Nurse shark, chimaera, rays
- -Bony fish-most diverse group of vertebrae
- Ex. mudskipper
- 1.first group with limbs(tetrapods)
- 2.Require water for reproduction;do not have amniotic sac