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What is ecology?
the study of how organism interact with their environment
The primary goal of ecology
to understand the distribution and abundance of organisms
in ecology researchers work at four main levels
- -How do individuals interact with each other abd their physical environment?
- 3.behavioral adaptions that allow individuals to live in a particular area
- ex. salmon migrate from salt water to fresh water environment to breed
- -How and why does population change over time?
- -focus how the numbers of individuals in a population change over time
- -How do species interact, and what are the consequences?
- -species that interact with each other within a particualr area
- -ask questions about the nature of interaction between species and the consequences of those interactionsex. salmon are prey as well as predators
-How do energy and nutrients cycle through the environemt?
-the effort to study, reserve, and restore threatened populations, communities and ecosystems
Factors that affect the distribution and abundance of organisms in fresh and salt water:
- 1.nutrient availability
- 2.Water depth
- 3.Water movement
- - as the surface water moves away form the coast, it is steadily replaced by water moving up from the ocean bottom
- -Nutrient rich
- -bodies of water higher altitudes undergo changes known as spring and fall turnovers-occur in response to changes in air temperature
- -Spring:Brings nutrients from the bottom to the top
- -Fall:Brings oxygen-rich water from surface to bottom
- -shallow water habitats where soil is staurated with water for at least part of the year
- Different from lakes:
- -shallow water-emergent vegetation: plants that grow above the surface
_____water holds more oxygen than ____does
cold water holds more oxygen than warm does
slow-moving streams are_________but have_________
slow-moving streams are more nutrient rich but have less oxygen
Near source water is ______
Near source water is fast, cold, nutrient poor, high in 02
water slows down and becomes_______
Later, water slows down, becomes warmer, more nutrient rich, lower 02
- form where rivers meet the ocean, fresh water mixes with salt water
- -nutrient rich: nutrients are constantly replenished
- -among the most roductive environments on earth
rocky, snady, or mudy beach that is exposed to the air at low tide but submerged at high tide
Net primary productivity
the total amount of carbon that is fixed per year minus the amount that is oxidized during cellular respiration
represents the organic matter that is availbale as food for other organisms
fixed carbon that is consumed in cellular respiration provides_____________ but not ___________
fixed carbon that is consumed in cellular respiration provides energy for organisms but not used for growth
Tropical wet forests
- -aka tropical rain forest
- -plants have broad leaves, evergreen
- -epiphytes:plants that grow entirely on other plants
where do high levels of precipitation occur?
along the equator
a major cycle in global air circulation
where do rain shadows exists?
- -the region beyond a moutain range that recieves dry air masses
- Ex.Death valley
a region recieves less than 5cm(2in) of precipitation annually and has temperatures that never drop below freezing. which type of biome is present?
The littoral zone of a lake is most similar to____
to the intertidal zone
where are oxygen levels highest and nutrient levels lowest in a stream?
near its source
why are mountaintops cold eventhough they are closer to the sun?
-as air rises , it expands, this cools the air
The most common approach used by biologists to identify and characterize climatic regimes is to analyze
-the area's average annual temperature and precipitation, as well as the annula variations in temperature and precipitation
what aspects of a regions's climate have the most impact on plants and animals?
-temperature and moisture
what zone is found only in freshwater environments?
How do ecology and conservation efforts interact?
- 1.Theoretical ecology: more theoretical, mainly predictions
- 2.Applied ecology
- a.conservational biology
- b.wildlife management biology
- -deer and ticks(with lyme disease)=allow hunters to kill deers to eliminate spreading of the disease
- 1. 70% of earth s water
- 2.Photic zone-upper ocean level
- 3.Benthic zone: bottom level, above hydrovent
- 4.Intertidal: where waves hit sand
- 5.estuaries: ocean water meets fresh water
- 6.Freshwater: lakes and streams
- 7.Pelagic: open ocean, sharks and whales
- 1.Normally water goes east to west and it causes cold/nutrient rich water to come up
- 2.during abnormal phase, water goes west to east and the hot water goes down but the cold water does not come up causeing drought conditions
- 1.Good refuge for many animals
- 2.But can be stressful place to live because part of the day you will be living in slatwater and in groundwater part of the day
Precipitations is the ________for all aquatic ecoystmes
1st order stream
stream created by rainfall
2nd order stream
two 1st order streams combined
Does daylight savings happen near the equator?
no, because changes in length of day size
- Extreme changes in condition, severe winter=harsh conditons+decreased biodiversity
- -discontinued growth(only grow in summer)
Deserts and why they are found at 30s and why they are found at 30S and 30N
- 1..Hadley cells
- 2.Hot air can hold moisture so it goes up, becomes cold and cant hold moisture and rains
- 3.Then it goes either north 30 degrees or south 30 degrees
- 4.Then it is not moisture for the cold air to pick up=desert
- -destroyed everything