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What are the aspects of the scientific method related to describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling?
- ¥description: what is happening?
- ¥explanation: why is it happening?
¥theory: general explanation of a set of observations or facts
- ¥prediction: will it happen again?
- ¥control: how can it be changed?
Who is the father of psychology?
What did Wundt believe?
- ¥attempted to apply scientific principles to the study of the human mind (structure)
- ¥believed that the mind was made up of thoughts, experiences, emotions, and other basic elements
How did Wundt inspect these non pysical elements?
students had to learn to think objectively* about their own thoughts, because they could hardly read someone else’s mind. Wundt called this process objective introspection
What is objective introspective?
the process of objectively examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities
expressing or dealing with facts or conditions are they really are without allowing the influence of personal feelings, prejudices, or interpretations
focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind
Who is Edward Titchener?
He was a student of Wundt
What did Titchener believe?
- ¥Titchener believed that every experience could be broken down into its individual emotions and sensations.
- ¥Titchener agreed with Wundt that consciousness, the state of being aware of external events, could be broken down into its basic elements, but also believed that objection introspection could be used on thoughts as well as on physical sensations
the self observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires, and sensations
the focus of study is how the mind is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
studying the application of psychological concepts to education
studying the application of psychological concepts to businesses, organizations, and industry
Which perspective was concerned with the unconscious mind?
(Sigmund Freud) there is an unaware mind into which we push, or repress, all of our threatening urges and desires. Freud believed that these repressed urges, in trying to surface, created the nervous disorders in his patients
What do the behaviorist favor to study and how to they explain things like the cause of crime?
focus on observable behavior, something that can be directly seen and measured
Who is John Watson?
¥ “father of behaviorism,” challenged the functionalist viewpoint, as well as psychoanalysis, with his own behaviorism. wanted to bring psychology back to a focus on scientific inquiry. wanted to ignore “consciousness” issue
¥wanted to prove that all behavior was a result of a stimulus-response relationship, such as described by Pavlov
How did Pavlov condition his dogs?
- ¥showed that a reflex such as salivation, which is normally produced by actually having food in one’s mouth, could be caused to occur in response to a totally new and formerly unrelated stimulus, such as the sound of a bell
- ¥he would ring the bell, give the dogs food, and thy would salivate. after several repetitions, the dogs would salivate to the sound of the bell before the fodd was presented (a learned/conditioned reflexive response)
Who developed the concept of positive reinforcement?
Behavioral responses that are strengthened or reinforced are followed by what?
Which perspective is actively interested in the well-being of the client, enabling them to self-actualize?
human and animal behavior is seen as a direct result of events in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
focuses on the biological basis for universal mental characteristics that all humans share. seeks to explain general mental strategies and traits, such as why we lie, how attractiveness influences mate selection, etc.
How do cognitive psychologists study the brain?
through cognitive neuroscience
the study of the physical workings of the brain and nervous system when engaged in memory, thinking, and other cognitive processes. uses tools for imaging the brain and watching the workings of a living brain, such as MRI
Why do results from experiments need to be completely reported?
- ¥so that others can learn from what you have already accomplished, or failed to accomplish
- ¥even if your research gave you the answer you expected, your investigation might have been done incorrectly, or the results might have been a fluke due to chance alone. so if others can replicate your research it gives much more support to your findings
What does naturalistic observation entail?
observation in something’s natural environment (gives a more realistic/genuine picture of how behavior occurs because they are actually watching that behavior in its own setting, instead of a laboratory)
a measure of the relationship between two or more variables
represents the direction of the relationship and its strength
What is the placebo effect?
the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
What do double-blind studies control for?
- ¥study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group
- ¥controls both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect: tendency of the experimenter’s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
What is the nervous system?
- ¥an extensive network of specialized cells that caries information to and from all parts of the body
- ¥all the different parts work together in controlling the way people and animals think, act, and feel
What is a dendrite?
- ¥branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons
- ¥attached to the cell body, the soma, which is the part of the cell that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell alive and functioning
What is the sequence of impulse from one neuron to the next?
neuron at rest, neural impulse, and then the neural impulse continues
the neuron is negatively charged inside and positively charged outside
Neuron at rest, during the resting potiental
the action potential occurs when positive sodium ions enter into the cell, causing a reversal of the electrical charge from negative to positive
as the action potential moves down the axon toward the axon terminals, the cell areas behind the action potential return to their resting state of a negative charge as the positive sodium ions are pumped to the outside of the cell, and the positive potassium ions rapidly leave
neural impulse continues
What is the function of the myelin?
fatty substance produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse
grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce myelin to coat axons, clean up waste products and dead neurons, influence information processing, and, during prenatal development, influence the generation of new neuron
What is the action potential?
- ¥the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon
- ¥electrical charge reversal... because the electrical potential is now in action rather than at rest
What is a neurotransmitter?
- ¥chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell
- ¥they are inside a neuron and they are going to transmit a message
What are the parts of a neuron?
Dendrite, axon, soma
branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons
tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells
the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell
What is the peripheral NS?
- ¥all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself
- ¥allows the brain and spinal cord to communicate with the sensory systems of the eyes, ears, skin, and mouth and allows the brain and spinal cord to control the muscles and glands of the body
What is the autonomic NS?
division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands
known as the "Flight of fight system"?
what are the 2 divisions of the autonomic NS?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
¥part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal
¥located in the middle of the spinal column, running from near the top of the ribcage to the waist area
¥part of the ANS that restores the body to norma functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands
¥neurons are located at the top and bottom of the spinal column, on either side of the sympathetic division neurons
How does the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic NS work together?
parasympathetic nervous system restores body to normal functioning after sympathetic division gets it aroused
Which subcortical brain structure is the most closely associated with memory?
hippocampus (plays a role in our learning, memory, and ability to compare sensory information to expectations)
¥part of the hindbrain that controls balance and maintains muscle coordination
¥part of the lower brain that controls all involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement
What did Roger Sperry win a Nobel prize for, in regard to his brain studies?
- ¥pioneer in the field of hemisphere specialization
- ¥won Nobel prize for his work in demonstrating that the left and right hemispheres of the brain specialize in different activities and functions
- ¥in looking for a way to cure epilepsy, Sperry cut through the corpus callosum, the thick band of neural fibers that joins the two hemispheres
¥controls the right hand
¥logical thought processes
¥analysis of detail
¥controls the left hand
¥music and artistic processing
¥emotional thought and recognition
¥processes the whole