Chapter 55:Biodiversity

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Chapter 55:Biodiversity
2011-09-07 02:40:06

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  1. what is biodiversity?
    the variety of all forms of life, from genes to species, through to the broad scale of ecosystems
  2. Types of biodiversity
    • 1.Genetic diversity
    • 2.species diversity
    • 3.ecosystem diversity
  3. Genetic diversity:
    the total genetic information contained within all individuals of a species
  4. Species diversity
    the variety of species on earth
  5. Ecosystem diversity
    the array of biotic communities in a region along with abiotic components, such as soil, water, and nutrients
  6. endemic species
    species that are found in an area and nowhere else
  7. Habitat fragmentation
    fragment large, contigous areas of natural habitats into small isolated fragments
  8. Bioremediation
    the use of bacteria, archea, and plants to metabolize pollutants and render them harmless
  9. Stability of a community
    • 1.withstand a disturbance without changing
    • 2.recover to former levels of productivity or species richness after disturbance
    • 3. maintain productivity as conditons change overtime
  10. Resistance
    measure of how much a community is affected by disturbance
  11. Resilence
    measure of how quickly a community recovers following a disturbance
  12. ex situ conservation:
    the perservation of species in zoos, aquariums, or other artificial settings
  13. what does a species-area plot show?
    -the number of species found, on average, in a habitat of given size
  14. WHat does a GAP analysis do?
    -it compares the current distributions of species with the locations of preserved habitats
  15. what is resilience?
    -the ability to recover from a disturbance
  16. what is the primary cause of endangerment in marine environments?
  17. How does fragmentation reduce habitat quality?
    fragmentation reduces habitat quality by creating edges that susceptible to invasion and loss of species, due to changed abiotic conditions
  18. Eutrophication
    adding too many nutrients
  19. Edge effects
    • 1.Abrupt edge: just one big tree at the end and then no plants after. Decreases buffer
    • 2.Gradual edge: the big forest gradually recedes into smaller plants then eventually disappears, increases buffer and increases diversity of the area type
  20. Optimum yield
    • when fisheries fish till 1/2 of carrying capacity , that is where the maximum growth rate is located and the population will bounce back to maximum growth rate immediately
    • -maximum yield
  21. Bottom trawling
    fish with net, bottom of net has tires dragged along bottom, makes the bottom of the ocean barren
  22. By catch...consequence
    non target species get caught
  23. TED(Turtle Exclusion Device)
    -avoid by catch
  24. Purse Seine Fishing
    • circular net
    • -unfair type of fishing
  25. Cynaide fishing
    • 1.cyanide binds to hemoglobin not allwoing them to get oxygen to blood
    • 2.Mainly used for aquarium trade
  26. Story of Africa
    • 1.Nile perch introduced to the lake for sports fishing
    • 2.Cichlid diversity reduced by 40% because Nile Perch is predator
    • 3.People eat Nile Perch and burn many trees