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Term associated with a female declaring virginity for a second time.
Secondary Virgin or Born-Again Virgin
Red State demographics
- socially conservative
- evangelical Christian
- lower median age at marriage
- greater risk for divorce
- generally advocate abstinence only education
- denounce sex before marriage
Changes in the definition of the family
Postmodern family - acknowledges new family forms not necessarily bound together by legal marriage, blood, or adoption.
- Family togetherness
- focus on the family as a whole - placing family well-being first
- Also called familism
- think in terms of personal happiness
- development of a distinct individual identity
- expression of individual preferences
- maximization of individual talents and options
Family Change Perspective
Family is an “adaptable institution” and, as such, changes in response to larger social change.
Family Decline Perspective
Views changes in the family as something ‘bad’ or negative and seeks to perhaps go back to some idealistic idea of the family.
Developed within the protected space and intensified atmosphere of the college campus
Sexual imagery becomes more commonplace
Cohabitation is on the rise
Sex actively claimed by young people for both pleasure and power
Changes in sexual mores and behaviors in America defined and experienced as revolutionary because of the ties to young people
- The Family performs essential functions for society (like the organs of a body)
- Criticism - fails to deal with social change and social dynamics as anything other than disruptions to social equilibrium
Structural-Functionalist Perspective Themes
Family is like a social organization and all such orgs function best when there is a hierarchical organizational structure.
There is a best or more complete structure of the family, and other family forms such as single-parent families, are incomplete versions of that structure.
The family is a social unit with great longevity precisely because it functions well.
The family functions well in terms of satisfying either the needs of individuals or the needs of society…actually oriented toward both
Assumptions associated with conforming to the social expectations for the family (mother/father)
Any sexually expressive, parent–child, or other kin relationship in which people—usually related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption—(1) form an economic and/or otherwise practical unit and care for any children or other dependents, (2) consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group, and (3) commit to maintaining that group over time.
Traditional Family Defined:
Traditionally, both law and social science have specified that the family consists of people related by blood, marriage, or adoption. The U.S. Census Bureau defines a family as “a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption and residing together in a household.”
Typical Families today:
Today, only 7% of families fit the 1950s nuclear family ideal of married couple and children
Dual-career families are common, and there are reversed-role families (working wife, househusband)
cohabiting heterosexual couples
gay and lesbian families
Today there are more single-parent families, gay partners and parents, remarried families, and families in which adult children care for their aging parents.
The belief that women’s roles should be confined to the family and that women are not as fit as men for certain tasks or for leadership positions
denies that gender discrimination persists and includes the belief that women are asking for too much - a situation that results in resistance to women’s demands
Children learn much about gender roles from their parents, whether they are taught consciously or unconsciously
Parents model roles and reinforce expectations of appropriate behavior
Heterosexuals: Attracted to opposite-sex partners
Homosexuals: Attracted to same-sex partners
Bisexuals: Attracted to people of both sexes
Asexual: Have emotional feelings and may desire intimate relationships with others, just not sexual ones
4 settings of socialization:
- Boys and girls in the family
- Play and games
- The power of cultural images
- Socialization in schools
Boys and girls in the family as a setting of socialization:
Encouragement of gender-typed interests and activities continues
Fathers more than mothers enforce gender stereotypes, especially for sons. It is more acceptable, for example, for girls to be tomboys
Exploratory behavior is encouraged more in boys than in girls
Household chores (number and kinds) adhere to gendered notions
However, this varies by race/ethnicity. For example, African American girls are raised to be more independent and less passive
Play and games as a setting of socialization
Girls have more dolls, fictional characters, children’s furniture, and the color pink
Boys have more sports equipment, tools, toy vehicles, and the colors red, blue, and white
Toys send messages about gender roles
Play is a significant vehicle through which children develop appropriate concepts of adult roles, as well as images of themselves
Girls play in one-to-one relationships or in small groups that are relatively cooperative and have few rules
Boys play in large groups, characterized by more fighting and attempts to effect a hierarchical pecking order
The power of cultural images as a setting of socialization
Media images often convey gender expectations, called media frames
Media frames guides us through what the subject is and what its meaningful qualities are
Females are likely to be shown trying to get a man’s attention, their physical appearance is often focused upon, and they can be the object of hate (misogynistic images)
Males are more likely to be depicted in dominant, agentic roles, and as the authoritative narrative or voiceover, even when the products are aimed at women
Socialization in schools as a setting of socializaton
More men are in positions of authority (principals) and women are in positions of service (teachers and secretaries)
Teachers pay more attention to males than to females
Males tend to dominate learning environments from nursery school to college.
Love Styles: Eros
Eros: Characterized by intense emotional attachment and powerful sexual feelings or desires
Love Styles: Storge
Storge: An affectionate, companionate style of loving focused on deepening mutual commitment, respect, friendship, and common goals.
Love Styles: Pragma
Pragma: Involves rational assessment of a potential partner’s assets and liabilities.
Love Styles: Agape
Agape: Emphasizes unselfish concern for the beloved’s needs even when that requires personal sacrifice.
Love Styles: Ludus
Ludus: Emphasizes enjoying many sexual partners rather than searching for a serious relationship
Love Styles: Mania
Mania: Rests on strong sexual attraction and emotional intensity. It differs from eros in that manic partners are extremely jealous and moody, and their need for attention and affection is insatiable