Family is an “adaptable institution” and, as such, changes in response to larger social change.
Developed within the protected space and intensified atmosphere of the college campus
Sexual imagery becomes more commonplace
Cohabitation is on the rise
Sex actively claimed by young people for both pleasure and power
Changes in sexual mores and behaviors in America defined and experienced as revolutionary because of the ties to young people
Family is like a social organization and all such orgs function best when there is a hierarchical organizational structure.
There is a best or more complete structure of the family, and other family forms such as single-parent families, are incomplete versions of that structure.
The family is a social unit with great longevity precisely because it functions well.
The family functions well in terms of satisfying either the needs of individuals or the needs of society…actually oriented toward both
Assumptions associated with conforming to the social expectations for the family (mother/father)
Traditionally, both law and social science have specified that the family consists of people related by blood, marriage, or adoption. The U.S. Census Bureau defines a family as “a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption and residing together in a household.”
Today, only 7% of families fit the 1950s nuclear family ideal of married couple and children
Dual-career families are common, and there are reversed-role families (working wife, househusband)
cohabiting heterosexual couples
gay and lesbian families
Today there are more single-parent families, gay partners and parents, remarried families, and families in which adult children care for their aging parents.
denies that gender discrimination persists and includes the belief that women are asking for too much - a situation that results in resistance to women’s demands
Children learn much about gender roles from their parents, whether they are taught consciously or unconsciously
Parents model roles and reinforce expectations of appropriate behavior
Heterosexuals: Attracted to opposite-sex partners
Homosexuals: Attracted to same-sex partners
Bisexuals: Attracted to people of both sexes
Asexual: Have emotional feelings and may desire intimate relationships with others, just not sexual ones
Encouragement of gender-typed interests and activities continues
Fathers more than mothers enforce gender stereotypes, especially for sons. It is more acceptable, for example, for girls to be tomboys
Exploratory behavior is encouraged more in boys than in girls
Household chores (number and kinds) adhere to gendered notions
However, this varies by race/ethnicity. For example, African American girls are raised to be more independent and less passive
Girls have more dolls, fictional characters, children’s furniture, and the color pink
Boys have more sports equipment, tools, toy vehicles, and the colors red, blue, and white
Toys send messages about gender roles
Play is a significant vehicle through which children develop appropriate concepts of adult roles, as well as images of themselves
Girls play in one-to-one relationships or in small groups that are relatively cooperative and have few rules
Boys play in large groups, characterized by more fighting and attempts to effect a hierarchical pecking order
Media images often convey gender expectations, called media frames
Media frames guides us through what the subject is and what its meaningful qualities are
Females are likely to be shown trying to get a man’s attention, their physical appearance is often focused upon, and they can be the object of hate (misogynistic images)
Males are more likely to be depicted in dominant, agentic roles, and as the authoritative narrative or voiceover, even when the products are aimed at women
More men are in positions of authority (principals) and women are in positions of service (teachers and secretaries)
Teachers pay more attention to males than to females
Males tend to dominate learning environments from nursery school to college.
Storge: An affectionate, companionate style of loving focused on deepening mutual commitment, respect, friendship, and common goals.
Pragma: Involves rational assessment of a potential partner’s assets and liabilities.
Agape: Emphasizes unselfish concern for the beloved’s needs even when that requires personal sacrifice.