acs cont

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acs cont
2011-09-07 16:52:49

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  1. Personality Disorders
    persistent disorders characterized by a relatively inflexible reaction to stress
  2. antisocial
    psycho/sociopath that acts out conflict without remorse or guilt and has difficulty following rules
  3. compulsive
    descriptive of thoughts or behavior which are automatic responses to anxiety or stress. A common example is compulsive hand washing caused by an obsession with cleanliness or a phobia of being unclean. Also see obsessive
  4. Hysterical aka Histrionic
    attention seeking, aggressive, seductive person, who is unable to be deeply involved emotionally
  5. Narcissism
    attention seeking, regards no one else as important, strong admiration for self/exhibitionist
  6. Paranoid
    preoccupations with delusions, sensitive, defensive, suspicion leading to agrression, unfounded beliefs that others want to harm him
  7. Passive Aggressive
    taking aggressive actions in an indirect manner, argumentative
  8. Schizoid
    ungluing of reason and emotion. introverted and withdrawn, emotionally cold and distant, avoids social interaction. delusions and hallucinations
  9. Defense mechanisms
    unconscious strategies utilized to cope with reality
  10. Denial
    refusal to perceive unpleasant realities. painful subject stems from external sources such as impulses or fantasies. most commonly seen in alcoholics
  11. projection
    act of assigning a feeling or belief to another person, group, or to the outside world
  12. Rationalization
    attributing one's own unacceptable desires and impulses to someone else
  13. Reaction formation
    depressed, unacceptable behavior expressed in an exaggerated form of an opposite behavior
  14. Regression
    a response to stress in which an individual reverts to a less developmentally mature stage. acts like a child
  15. Repression
    the unconscious exclusion of painful impulses, desires, or fears from teh conscious mind
  16. Transference
    redirecting ones feelings (aggresion or affection) from one person to another
  17. Sublimation
    channeling unacceptable impulses or energy into socially acceptable activity
  18. anxiety disorders
    patients with anxiety disorders usually present with physical symptoms to physicians. Physical symptoms: heart palpitations, increased heart rate, shortness of breath, sweating tingling, dizziness
  19. Anxiety
    A state of intense apprehension or worry often accompanied by physical symptoms such as shakin, intense feelings in the gut, etc, common in mental illness or after a very distressing experience
  20. Panic Disorder
    repeated attacks of severe anxiety. Attacks last from 5-30 minutes
  21. Obsessive- Compulsive
    • obsession: reoccuring intrusive thought or image that seems senseless or unpleasant
    • compulsion: activity designed to reduce anxiety that a person feels compelled to repeat with no conscious desire to do so.
    • Perfectionist, inflexible, uncontrollably entangled with details and highly repetitive activities
    • presistent thoughts are obsessive while persistent actions are compulsive
    • most often begins in early adolescence but can begin in childhood
  22. Phobic
    • an irrational or unrealistic fear of a situation, animal, person, or activity
    • agoraphobia-public spaces, acrophobia-heights, astrophobia- thunder and lightening, astraphobia- fear of stars or celestial space
  23. Somatoform Disorders
    psychological conflicts take on a physical form adn no organic evidence exists to explain symptom
  24. Somatoform Disorders
    psychological conflicts take on a physical form and no organic evidence exists to explain symptom
  25. Somatization Disorder
    chronic, cyclic multiple somatic complaints not due to a physical illness. Symptoms cannot be explained by physical syndrome. Patient seeks treatmentand changes life as a result of the symptoms. Patient presents with symptoms in a vague and exaggerated way. More concerned with discomfort than disease
  26. Hypochondriasis
    an exaggerated preoccupation with bodily functions and fear that one is suffering from serious disease. Pt believes they have a disease or one is soon going to occur. Disease is thought to be imminent. Patient presents with having dx himself in a very detailed way, hoping for a dreaded dx.
  27. Conversion Hysteria aka Conversion Reaction
    Loss or change of physical fxn caused by a psychological conflict. COnversion symptoms are not supported by medical evidence but not faked. Often appear rapidly after trauma. Involuntary response. Most common disability seen: paralysis, blindness, mutism, deafness, seizures
  28. Body Dysmorphic Disorder
  29. Pervasive belief that a body part is a misshapen or malformed. Pt able to admit that she or he is exaggerateing. May avoid mirrors or social contact
  30. Affective Disorder
    severe fluctuation of mood or personality
  31. Alcoholism
    associated with delirium tremens and folate deficiency
  32. Anorexia Nervosa
    severe restriction of calories. fear of fat and body image distortion, amenorrhea, excessive exercise, unreasonable fear of gaining weight
  33. Bipolar Affective Disorder aka manic depressive
    Behavior alternates between mania and melancholia, highs and lows, first occurs between childhood and age 50. Avg manic episode last 3 months, depressive phase 6-9 months
  34. Bulimia Nervosa
    preoccupation with food, bringe eating with subsequent purging, body image distortion
  35. Catatonia
    associated with muscle inhibition.
  36. Dystheymic Disorder
    mild chronic depression. symptoms need to occur most of the time for 2 years. Begins in adolescence or early adulthood. Same symptoms as depression but not as severe
  37. Hallucinations
    perception problems
  38. Involutional Melancholia
    a period of depression associated with menopause
  39. Schizophrenia
    delusions, hallucinations, social withdrawal, daily fxn impairment and bizarre behavior
  40. Transvestite
    a person who adopts the dress of the opposite sex, cross dressing
  41. Aversion
    used to treat alcoholics by associated drinking with unpleasant consequences
  42. Classical Conditioning
    two events that occur close together in time become fused in the persons mind (Pavlov's dogs)
  43. Operant Conditioning
    a satisfying reinforcement strengthens the behavior. Unsatisfying consequences weaken behavior and make it less likely to be repeated
  44. Negative Reinforcment
    Taking away the aversive stimulus in response to a person's action increases the action. Ex: picking up a crying baby
  45. Flooding
    a form of desensitization for the treatment of phobias and related disorders in which the patient is repeatedly exposed to emotionally distressing stimuli of high intensity
  46. Modeling
    a behavior modification technique in which one is taught to imitate the desired behavior of another
  47. Rorschach Test
    Psychological testing using a series of inkblot images
  48. Wechsler Scale
    A method of IQ testing
  49. Freud
    • development of free association and dream analysis as a route to the unconscious mind. Developed the psychosexual stages of development going from oral to anal to phallic or genital. ANAL is stubborn and develops an order to every aspect of life.
    • Id: basic instincts, EGO: reality and control, Superego: guilt and consciousness
  50. Jung
    collective unconscious of man; used for psychoanalysis
  51. Maslow
    hierarchy of human needs; physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self actualiazation
  52. Pavlov
    classical conditioning
  53. Skinner
    operant conditioning
  54. Acetaminophen
    • tylenol; an antipyretic analgesic that causes liver damage
    • fever reducer
  55. Activated charcoal
    an absorbent
  56. Acyclovir
    antiviral (herpes)
  57. Allopurinol
    used to treat chronic gout
  58. Arsenic
    odor of garlic
  59. Barbituarates
    sleepign pills can produce respiratory depression
  60. Benzodiazepine
    used to treat anxiety side effect is tremors muscle relaxant
  61. Beta Blockers
    given for hypertension and arrhythmias; blocks epinephrine and norepinephrine
  62. Carbon Monoxide
    associated blue mucous membranes. poisoning cherry red lips and skin
  63. Carbon Tetrachloride
    it was formerly widely used in fire extinguishers as a precursor to refrigerants, and as a cleaning agent. it is a colorless liquid with a sweet smell that can be detected at low levels
  64. chloroform
    a clear volatile liquid with a strong smell like either. it was once administered by inhalation to produce anesthesia and given as an analgesic and a remedy for cough. it is quite toxic to the kidney and the liver
  65. Chlorpromazine
    a drug used to treat schizophrenia
  66. Cholinesterase Inhibitor
    an organophosphate
  67. Cocaine
    classification as a narcotic; lidocaine used as a local anesthetic
  68. Colchicine
    used to treat acute symptomatic gout
  69. Cyanide
    has the taste of cherry seeds or almonds
  70. EDTA
    best substance to remove lead from blood chelation therapy
  71. Emetic
    a substance that makes you vomit;
  72. Epinephrine
    used in the treatment of anaphylactic shock
  73. Expectorant
    alleviateds coughing; an antitussin
  74. Gastric Lavage
    pumping of the stomach
  75. haldol
    • used to treat psychotic disorders
    • controls motor tics and verbal tics in adults and children who have tourettes disorder
  76. Hallucinogenic Drugs
    mushrooms and nutmegs
  77. Lead Poisoning
    blue gums produces
  78. lithium
    a drug used to treat bipolarity that produces tremors
  79. nitroglycerine
    used to treat episodes of angina in people who have coronary artery disease
  80. NSAID
    non steroidal anti inflammatory; antipyretic, analgesic; feldene
  81. Prozac
    used to treat depression , obsessive compulsive disorder, some eating disorders and panic attacks
  82. Reserpine
    antipsychoticand antihypertensive drug
  83. Salicylates
    aspirin, causes bleeding, inhibits prostaglandins and associated with deafness and reye's syndrome
  84. Seconal
    brand name druf with an active ingredient called secobarbital
  85. Chloral Hydrate
    short term treatment of insomnia
  86. syrup of ipecac
    induces vomitting
  87. Tranquilizers
    predisposes elderly to falls
  88. tricyclic
    anti depressants
  89. tricyclic
    anti depressantes
  90. tyramine
    causes hypertension in those taking MAO inhibitors and is found in wine and cheese
  91. warfarin
    an anticoagulant/ Vit K antagonist, increased clotting time
  92. Pneumoconiosis
    chronic respiratory diesease caused by the inhalation of various mineral or metallic particles
  93. asbestosis
    caused by inhalation of asbestos dust. leads to mesothelioma
  94. siderosis
    caused by iron dust
  95. Anthracosis
    caused by coal dust
  96. byssinosis
    caused by cotton dust
  97. silicosis
    caused by glass, sand/ stone dust
  98. alpha fetoprotein
    measured in pregnant women using maternal blood or amniotic fluid as a screening test for a subset of developmental abnormalities. it is prinicpally increased in open neural tube defects and decreased in down syndrome
  99. amenorrhea
    abnormal cessation of menses
  100. Amniocentesis
    done for the health of the fetus, chromosomes, lung maturity
  101. breast milk
    deficient in vit d and iron
  102. colostrum
    first breast milk
  103. dilation of the cervix
    expansion or stretching of the cervix during the first stage of labor
  104. dysmenorrhea
    painful menses
  105. dystocia
    abnormal painful or prolonged labor
  106. effacement
    thinning of the cervix
  107. Engagement
    decent of the fetal skull to the level of ischial spines
  108. Hyperemesis gravidarum
    excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
  109. laparoscopy
    the most common surgical procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis
  110. lightening
    baby drops into the pelvis 2 weeks before delivery and produces lower abdominal pain
  111. linea nigra
    dark streak down teh midline of the abdomen seen during pregnancy
  112. lochia
    vaginal discharge after delivery of the placenta and throughout the puerperium 1st red 2nd yellow and 3rd white
  113. menarche
    1st menstrual cycel
  114. Mittelschmerz
    pain in abdomen at ovulation
  115. multiparous
    more than one delivery of viable infant
  116. nulliparous
    never given birth to a viable infant
  117. primpara
    first pregnancy with a viable infant
  118. Post partum infection
    most commonly from c section
  119. puerperium
    period of time after teh delivery of the placenta to the complete involution of the organs; infection during this time is referred to as puerperal spesis
  120. quickening
    1st perception by the mother of fetal life
  121. station
    identifies the fetal position in relation to the spines of the ischium
  122. signs of pregnancy
    menses 3 weeks late adn presence of fetal heartbeat
  123. chadwick's sign
    bluish discoloration of the vagina
  124. goodells sign
    softening of the tip of the cervix
  125. hegar's sign
    softening of the isthmus of the uterus
  126. piskacek's sign
    enlargment of the uterus near the uterine tube over the site of implantation
  127. atonic uterus
    most common reason for post partum hemorrhage
  128. braxton hick's contractions
    early uterine contractions (oxytocin) without cervical changes
  129. cervix
    most common malignancy of the female genital tract
  130. chloasma aka melasma
    • brown hyperpigmentation of the face
    • mask of pregnancy
  131. chorocarcinoma
    malignancy of the placenta due to abnormal epithelium
  132. cystocele
    herniation of the urinary bladder into the vagina
  133. eclampsia
    toxemia of pregnancy caused by hypertension leading to convulsions
  134. endometriosis
    • abnormal endometrial tissue outside the uterus
    • abdominal and back pain
  135. endometritis
    • most common type of post partum infection
    • staph or strep
    • inflammation of endometrium
  136. fibrocystic breast disease
    palpable nodules in breast after ovulation with regression after menses
  137. hydatidiform mole
    benign of trophoblastic tissue which develops at teh placenta
  138. pre eclampsia
    • toxemia of pregnancy with the following sign
    • hypertension
    • edema
    • proteinuria
  139. rectocele
    herniation of the rectum into the vagina
  140. FSH
    • responsible for maturation of the follicle
    • day 1-14 in mentsrual cycle
  141. HCG
    promotes health of corpus leuteum used to detect pregnancey
  142. LH
    most responsible for ovulation
  143. Oxytocin
    uterine contractions during labor and milk let down following delivery
  144. prolactin
    responsible for milk production
  145. 1st stage of labor
    • 1st meaningful contraction to full dilation of the cervix to 10 cm
    • longest stage
  146. 2nd stage of labor
    full dilation of cervix to delivery of baby
  147. 3rd stage of labor
    delivery of baby to delivery of placenta most dangerous for mom due to infections
  148. 4th stage of labor
    period of time from delivery of placenta to several hours when the tone of the uterus is established and the uterus contracts expelling any remaining contents
  149. Placenta Praevia
    low lying placenta with partial obstruction of the internal os
  150. Placenta abruptio
    normally placed, detaches from site spontaneous abortion premature separation
  151. placenta accreta
    does not separate after delivery
  152. battledore placenta
    umbilical cord is attached at teh margin of the placenta. it rarely occurs and does not affect placental functioning
  153. Pap Smear Classification
    • 1 normal
    • 2 atypical or benign
    • 3 dysplasia or pre cancer
    • 4 in situ non invasive carcinoma
    • 5 malignancy or invasive
  154. first teeth
    6-8 months
  155. first food
    6 months
  156. assisted walking
    10-14 months
  157. unassisted walking
    12-18 months
  158. talking
    10-15 words at 18 months
  159. umbilical cord falls off in 7-10 days
  160. posterior fontanelle
    closes at 3 months
  161. anterior fontanelle
    closes at 2 years
  162. depressed fontanelle indicates
  163. bulging fontanelle
    due to intracranial pressure possible excessive crying
  164. APGAR score
    • heart rate, respiratory rate, color, muscle tone, reflex irritability NOT birth weight
    • 7-10 normal, 4-6 monitor, less tahn 3 problem
  165. lanugo
    fuzzy hair on baby skin
  166. meconium
    1s poop
  167. mongolian spots
    bluish ill defined areas of skin on but and scrotal region
  168. premature
    infant born between 26-37 weeks and weigh less than 2500 g
  169. vernix caseosa
    white cheesy substance on teh baby's skin at birth
  170. botulism
    food poisoning produced by honey, corn syrup, and molasses in newborn
  171. caput succedeum
    baby's head has an unusual shape due to swelling of the scalp, considered benign
  172. cradle cap
    similar to seborrheic dermatitis in an adult
  173. enuresis
  174. erythroblastosis fetalis
    hemolytic anemia in the fetus or neonate caused by transplacental transmission of maternal antibodies to fetal RBCs. the disorder usually results from incmopatiblity between maternal and fetal blood groups often Rh antigens
  175. fetal alcohol syndrome
    presents with delayed growth microcephaly and retardation
  176. kwashiorkor
    protein malnutrition
  177. leukemia
    most common cancer in children and in Down's syndrome ALL
  178. Marasmus
    general malnutrition
  179. prickly heat
    milaria from sweat glands
  180. prolapsed cord
    leads to fetal suffocation
  181. vit k
    prvents hmorrhage in newborns
  182. Rubella aka german measles
    • 3 day measles
    • maculopapular rash and mild fever
    • danger to the fetus in the 1st tri because it may result in birth defects
  183. Rubeola
    • koplic spots, runny nose, lasts 2 weeks
    • maculaopapular rash and high fever
  184. Chicken Pox
    maculopapular rash herpes virus
  185. mumps
    mild disease in children and adults located in teh parotid gland that can produce orchitis
  186. Croup
    childhood disease characterized by a resonant barking cough
  187. Pertussis aka whooping cough
    • caused by bordetella pertussis
    • fatalities are due to bronchopneumonia
  188. Diphtheria
    gray pseudomembrane
  189. Scarlet Fever
    • group a strep pyogenes
    • peeling of superficial tongue
  190. Roseola Infantum
    rash starts on the trunk and goes to the extremities. rash comes out when fever breaks
  191. rooting reflex
    established by stroking teh corner of teh mouth; the infan'ts mouth will open and turn to the side that was touched; most basic prmiitve reflex originated from teh brain stem
  192. sucking reflex
    elicited by placing a finger or nipple in the mouth of the newborn stimulates oxytocin release
  193. tonic neck reflex
    doc rotates head of a supine baby and the ipsilateral arm and leg extended while the contralateral arma nd leg flex
  194. moro aka startle relfex
    arms and legs flare out to teh side in response to loud sound and are then brought back into body soensory integrations
  195. Landau Reflex
    infant should attempt to raise teh head and arch the back when placed in a prone position
  196. DJD
    most common geriatric neuromuscular complaint
  197. arcus senilis
    grayish opaque ring around the cornea
  198. presbyopia
    loss of elasticity of the lens or hardening of the lens
  199. presbycussis
    inability to hear high frequencies
  200. diabetes mellitus
    most common endocrine malfuntion on the elderly
  201. iron deficient anemia
    most common anemia in geriatrics
  202. multiple myeloma
    most common plasma cell dyscrasia
  203. wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
    seen in those with alcohol abuse B1 thiamin deficiency
  204. Decubitus Ulcer
    bed sore
  205. hip fracture
    most common fractured bone in the elderly
  206. rodent ulcer
    basal cell carcinoma
  207. Squamous cell
    itchy scaly patch
  208. macular degeneration
    most common visual problem in the elderly causing blindness
  209. alzheimer's disease
    mental deterioratoin, amnesia, depression, anxiety and rigidity best dx at autopsy
  210. tonometer
    checks for glaucoma
  211. vit d and calcium
    reduces the risk of fracture in the elderly
  212. PET
    • positron emission test
    • measure blood volume, oxygen uptake transport, metabolism
  213. ageism
    discriminatory treatment of the elderly
  214. osler's sign
    pretibial myxedema seen in graves' disease
  215. abandonment
    transfer of a pt to another doctor wiouth the patient's consent
  216. assault
    threat of violence to another person
  217. battery
    adjusting without consent
  218. binding arbitration
    has no appeal process
  219. civil court
    malpractice cases against chiropractors are tried in this court
  220. contract
    acceptance, consideration, 2 or more competent parties, legal object, and consent to contract
  221. employers must pay
    workers compensation, FICA and SS for their employees
  222. good samaritan law
    good faith rendering of care at an emergency isn't liable for ciivl damages
  223. informed consent
    providing the patien with feasible alternatives and informed of dangers of treatment
  224. libel
    false statement submitted in writing that harms another
  225. malpractice
    a professional negligence by act or omission by a health care provider in which care provided deviates from accepted standards of practice in teh medical community and causes injury or death to the patient
  226. negligence
    failur to conform to the standard of care expected and ipmosed by law
  227. plaintiff
    where teh urden of proof lies in a court of law
  228. respondent superior
    employer is responsible for actions of employees
  229. slander
    a false verbal statement about another
  230. standards of care
    a formal dx and treatment process a doctor will follow for a pt with a certain set of symptoms or specific illness. taht standard will follow guidelines and protocols that eperts would agree with as most appropriate also called best practice
  231. statute of limitation
    length of time you have to sue for an injury
  232. substandard care
    the standard of care is the basis on which negligence and fault are determined in medical malpractice lawsuits. it referes to the level of care, skill, and knowledge that is expected of all phsicians in a particular field, in a particular region, acting in similar cirumstances. substandard care, treatment and surgery occur when a doctor fails to meet this standard of care
  233. tort
    the body of the law which allows an injured person to obtain compensation from teh person who caused teh injury
  234. emergency assessment
    check responsiveness, open airway, check breathing, give breaths, check pulse
  235. battle sign
    ecchymosis around the mastoid, indicates possible basilar skull fracture
  236. raccoon sign
    when the injury produces black and blue spots around the eyes
  237. lightening injuries
    move out of danger, activate EMS, monitor for respiratory and cardiac arrest, look for both entrance and exit wounds. prolonged resuscitation may be required
  238. positioning
    cardiogenic shock; supine with feet higher than the head. anaphylactic shock; upright; lower extremity or pelvic injury supine
  239. adult cpr
    • airway, breathing and circulations
    • chest compressions 2 rescue breaths, 20 chest compressions, 2 breaths repeat.
    • stop cpr if help arrives or u are too tired.
    • recovery position side lying with bottom arm extended over head and upper leg bent
  240. choking infant procedure
    5 back blows and 5 chest thrusts
  241. burns
    • 1st redness epidermis
    • 2nd blisters epidermis and dermis but not the base of the dermis
    • 3rd charring of the skin
  242. epidural hematoma
    result of traumawith a faster bleeding rate. causes an increase in intracranial pressure
  243. subdural hematoma
    usually the result of a serious head injury. acute subdural hematomas are among the dealiest of all head injuries. symptoms of subdural hemorrhage have a slwoer onset than those of epidural hemorrhages because the lower pressure veins bleed more slowly than artieries
  244. subarachnoid hematoma
    usually the result of a cerbral aneurysm. consider a form of storke