Gross Anatomy

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DPM_Barry2015
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Gross Anatomy
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2011-09-10 17:50:30
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Test #1
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  1. What is the term for lying with your face downwards?
    Prone
  2. What is the term for lying on your back with your face upwards?
    Supine
  3. Term(s) for toward the tail end of the body or lower
    Inferior or Caudal
  4. What structures constitute the thoracic outlet?
    1. T12

    2. Rib 12

    3. Costal Margin
  5. Name (3) characteristics of the 1st Rib
    1. Short and Broad

    2. Boundary for the Thoracic Inlet

    3. Groove for subclavian Artery and Vein
  6. What are the (3) functions of the thoracic cage?
    1. Portect internal organs

    2. Attachment of muscles

    3. Assist in Breathing
  7. Do they ribs articulate with the sternum directly? If not, what do they articulate with?
    1. No

    2. The costal cartilage
  8. What is the origin of the Serratus anterior muscle?
    From ribs 1 - 8
  9. What are the muscles of the (5) Thoracic Wall?
    1. Serratus Anterior

    2. External Intercostal

    3. Internal Intercostal

    4. Innermost Intercostal

    5. Subcostal
  10. What (4) things should we know for each muscle?
    1. Its origin

    2. Its insertion

    3. Its clinical implications

    4. Its function
  11. The Serratus Anterior muscle forms...?
    It forms the medial wall of the axilla
  12. What is the insertion for the serratus anterior muscle?
    • Inserts in the costal surface of scapula include:
    • 1. Superior Angle

    2. Inferior Angle

    3. Medial Border
  13. What nerve innervates the serratus anerior muscle?
    The long thoracic nerve
  14. Where is the long thoracic nerve found?
    Inside the axilla
  15. Wha are the (4) functions of the Serratus Anerior Muscle?
    1. Rotates the scapula

    2. Abductor of the arm

    3. Elevation above the horizontal plane

    4. Respiration
  16. What are the (3) clinical applications of cutting the long thoracic nerve?
    1. Winging of the Scapula

    2. Loss of Elevation

    3. Problems with Respiration
  17. What are the (3) intercostal muscles?
    1. External Intercostal

    2. Internal Intercostal

    3. Innermost Intercostal
  18. What is the attachment for the External Intercostal Muscle?
    Lower borders of Ribs 1 - 11 to the upper borders of Ribs 2 - 12
  19. Describe the fibers of the External Intercostal Muscle.
    The fibers run down and forward
  20. What replaces the External Intercostal Muscle at the Costochondral Joint?
    External Intercostal Membrane
  21. What are the (2) functions of the External Intercostal Muscle?
    1. Elevate the rib cage

    2. Muscle of Inspiration
  22. What nerve innervates the External Intercostal Muscle?
    The corresponding intercostal nerve
  23. Describe the fibers of the Internal Intercostal Muscle.
    The fibers run down and backward
  24. What is the attachment of the Internal Intercostal Muscle?
    Attached to the lower margins of ribs, costal cartilages and grooves.

    (Same external intercostal muscle)
  25. What is the function of the Internal Intercostal Muscle?
    Muscle of Expiration
  26. What never innervates the internal intercostal muscle?
    The corresponding intercostal nerve
  27. How many parts does the innermost intercostal muscle have...name them
    • (3)
    • 1. Innermost Intercostal per se

    2. Subcostalis Muscle

    3. Sternocostalis Muscle
  28. What is the innermost intercostal per se?
    Few fibers between the ribs except and the subcostalis muscle and the sternocostalis muscle. It is mostly membrane.
  29. Where is the subcostalis muscle found?
    Found at the angle of the rib only
  30. What is the attachment of the subcostalis muscle?
    Between the ribs posteriorly and my cross 1 or 2 ribs and attaches to the third rib
  31. What is the function of the subcostalis muscle?
    Expiration
  32. What is another name for the sternocostalis muscle?
    Transversus Thoracis
  33. Where is the sternocostalis muscle found?
    Near the sternum only
  34. What is the attachment of the sternocostalis muscle?
    back of the xiphoid process and sternum
  35. What is the insertion of the sternocostalis muscle?
    In the costal cartilages
  36. What innervates the sternocostalis muscle?
    The intercostal nerves
  37. What is the function of the sternocostalis muscle?
    Expiration
  38. What is the first thing you should do when you encounter a picture on an exam?
    Determine the orientation
  39. Describe the fibers of the Innermost Intercostal Muscle
    The fibers run down and backwards
  40. Where is the Posterior Intercostal Neurovascular Bundle located?
    between the internal intercostal muscles and the innermost intercostal muscles...helps distinguish between the (2) muscles
  41. How many intercostal spaces are there?
    (11)
  42. What is the name for the space below the 12th rib?
    The subcostal space
  43. Where is the Nipple of the Breast located?
    Intercostal space 4
  44. What (4) arteries make up the arterial supply to the thoracic cage?
    1. Internal Thoracic Artery

    2. Highest Intercostal Artery

    3. Posterior Intercostal Artery

    4. Subcostal Artery
  45. From what does the Internal Thoracic Artery originate from?
    The subclavian artery
  46. From what does the highest Intercostal Artery originate from?
    The costocervical trunk...which is a branch of the subclavian artery
  47. From what does the Posterior Intercostal Artery originate from?
    From the thoracic aorta directly
  48. From what does the Subcostal Artery originate from?
    From the Thoracic Aorta directly
  49. What supplies the anterior aspect of the thoracic wall with blood?
    The internal thoracic arter...a branch from the subclavian artery
  50. What (3) structures supply the posterior aspect of the intercostal spaces with blood?
    1. 1st space is supplied by the highest intercostal

    2. 2nd thru 11th spaces supplied by the posterior intercostal arteries

    3. 12th (subcostal space) supplied by the subcostal artery
  51. Where does the Internal Thoracic Vein drain?
    Into the brachiocephelic vein
  52. Veins have...?
    Arteries have...?
    Blood Vessels have...?
    1. tributaries

    2. Branches

    3. Anastomoses
  53. On the Right Side of the Thoacic Wall, where does the 1st (highest intercostal vein) drain?
    Into the Brachiocephalic Vein
  54. On the Right Side of the Thoracic Wall, where does the 2nd thru 3rd (higher intercostal vein) drain?
    Into the Right Azygos Vein
  55. On the Right Side of the Thoracic Wall, where does the 4th thru 11th intercostal veins drain?
    Directly into the Azygos Vein
  56. What do the 2nd and 3rd intercostal veins join to form?
    The Higher Intercostal Vein
  57. On the Right Side, in the Azygos System, where does the Subcostal Vein drain?
    Directly into the Azygos Vein
  58. Where does the Azygos Vein drain?
    Into the Superior Vena Cava
  59. Venous drainage of the posterior thoracic wall is not...?
    Symmetrical
  60. What is a Pleural Cavity Tap?
    A needle inserted into the pleural cavity to extract fluid to examine for infection and corresponding medication
  61. On the Left Side of the Thoracic Wall, where does the 1st (Highest Intercostal) Vein drain?
    Into the Brachiocephalic Vein
  62. On the Left Side of the Thoracic Wall, what does the 2nd thru 4th intercostal veins join to form?
    The Accessory Hemiazygos Vein
  63. On the Left Side of the Thoracic Wall, what does the 5th thru 11th intercostal veins and the subcostal veins join to form?
    The Hemiazygos Vein
  64. Where does all the venous blood from the Left Side of the Thoracic Wall drain?
    Into the Azygos Vein...eventually into the Right Atrium
  65. What are the (2) routes the venous drainage of the Accessory Hemiazygos Vein and the Hemiazygos Vein can take?
    1. They can cross over to the right side independently

    2. join as a single unit and drain into the Azygos Vein
  66. What are the (2) places the Accessory Hemiazygos Vein may drain into?
    1. Azygos Vein

    2. Brachiocephalic Vein
  67. What are the (12) layers of penetration in the Mid-Axillary Line?
    1. Skin

    2. Superficial Fascia

    3. Deep Fascia

    4. Serratus Anterior

    5. External Intercostal Muscle

    6. Internal Intercostal Muscle

    7. Innermost Intercostal Muscle

    8. Endothoracic Fascia

    9. Parietal Pleura

    10. Pleural Cavity

    11. Visceral Pleura

    12. Lungs
  68. What does Parietal mean?
    Membrane that lines muscle, bones and ligaments
  69. What is the function of the Endothoracic Fascia?
    To prevent the parietal pleura from rubbing against the innermost intercostal muscles
  70. What is Sibson's Fascia?
    Thickening of the fascia over the apex of the lung
  71. What (8) structures does the Thoracic Cavity contain?
    1. (2) pleural cavities...seperate and enclosed spaces containing pleural fluid

    2. Mediastinum

    3. Heart

    4. Lungs

    5. Trachea

    6. Esophagus

    7. Vagus and Phrenic nerves, etc.
  72. What (2) veins join to form the Right Brachiocephalic Vein?
    1. Right Internal Jugular Vein

    2. Right Subclavian Vein
  73. What (2) veins join to form the Left brachiocephalic Vein?
    1. Left Internal Jugular Vein

    2. Left Subclavian Vein
  74. What (2) veins join to form the Superior Vena Cava?
    1. Right Brachiocephalic Vein

    2. Left Brachiocephalic Vein
  75. The Superior Vena Cava drains into...?
    The Right Atrium of the Heart
  76. Where does the Inferior Thyroid Vein drain?
    Into the Brachiocephalic Vein
  77. While performing a Mid Pleural Cavity Tap, if you have pierced the Visceral Pleura, you have also pierced what?
    The Lungs
  78. What do the Pleural Reflection cover?
    The Lungs
  79. What is the purpose of the Pleural Fluid?
    To minimize friction between the Parietal Pleura and Visceral Pleura
  80. What part of the lung is not covered by Pleural Membranes?
    The Root of the Lung
  81. What lines the muscle wall surrounding the lung?
    Parietal Pleura
  82. What covers the Lung?
    The Visceral Pleura
  83. What is the Cupola?
    Area of parietal pleura reflected on Apex of the Lung
  84. How many vertebra are there? Name and number them...
    (33) Total

    (7) Cervical

    (12) Thoracic

    (5) Lumbar

    (5) Sacral

    (4) Coccygeal
  85. Which rib is generally the longest?
    Rib 7
  86. How many ribs are in the typical human body?
    (24) ribs...(12) pairs
  87. Which rib is generally the shortest? Some also say...?
    1. Rib 12

    2. Rib 1
  88. What ribs are considered "Typical" and what are their common features?
    1. Ribs 3 thru 9

    2. Each have a head, neck and shaft
  89. Which ribs are considered "Atypical"?
    Ribs 1, 2, 10 thru 12
  90. What (3) structures does the costal groove shelter?
    1. Intercostal Nerve

    2. Intercostal Artery

    3. Intercostal Vein
  91. Which ribs are considered "False Non-Floating" ribs and what is their unique characteristic?
    1. Ribs 8 thru 10

    2. They articulate with adjacent costal cartilage
  92. Which ribs are considered "true" ribs and what is their unique characteristic?
    1. Ribs 1 thru 7

    2. They articulate directly through their costal cartilage with the sternum
  93. what articulates directly in the sternal angle?
    Costal cartilage of Rib 2
  94. What are the other (2) names for the Sternal Angle?
    1. Angle of Louis

    2. Manubrio-Sternal Joint
  95. What level is the Xiphoid Process Located? (In relation to the vertebral column)
    T10 or T11
  96. What level is the Manubrio-Sternal Joint located? (In relation to the vertebral column)
    Lower Border of T4
  97. What (3) structures make up the Thoracic Outlet?
    1. T12

    2. Rib 12

    3. Costal Margin
  98. What (4) structures are located in the thoracic inlet?
    1. Trachea

    2. Esophagus

    3. Nerves (Vagus and Phrenic)

    4. Apex of the Lung
  99. What (3) structures make up the thoracic inlet?
    1. 1st Rib

    2. Manubrium Sterni

    3. 1st Thoracic Vertebra
  100. What (3) structures make up the Sternum?
    1. Manubrium Sterni

    2. Body

    3. Xiphoid Process
  101. The mammary gland is composed of what (2) structures?
    1. Breast

    2. Axillary Tail
  102. Name and describe the (2) types of fascia.
    1. Superficial - more fat and found under the skin

    2. Deep - more fibers and found around the muscle
  103. What are the (2) patterns of Deep Fascia?
    1. Irregular

    2. Regular
  104. Where is the breast located?
    Between the sternum and mid-axillary line, between ribs 2 thru 6
  105. What are the (2) major components of the breast?
    1. Fat

    2. Glands
  106. What is a dimple?
    Periosteum attached to the skin
  107. What are flexure lines?
    Skin that is freely movable over the superficial fascia...may be wrinkled or pulled up into folds
  108. Fingerprints are and example of what structure?
    Friction Ridges
  109. Excessive scaring or excessive collagen secretion and lead to what?
    Keloids
  110. How many spinal nerves are there? Name them...
    (31) Total

    (8) Cervical

    (12) Thoracic

    (5) Lumbar

    (5) Sacral

    (1) Coccygeal
  111. What are liver spots?
    Accumulation of melanin...similar to freckles
  112. What are (4) age changes evident in the skin?
    1. Translucent (thinning)

    2. Wrinkles (loss of fat)

    3. Loss of hair

    4. Liver Spots (Hands and Face)
  113. What are (2) other names for tension lines?
    1. Langers Lines

    2. Lines of Cleavage
  114. What are tension lines?
    Skin that is not smooth, geometric pattern of creases, follows bundle of collagen fibers in dermis of skin
  115. Why is it important to know the dermatomes?
    To detect neurological lesions
  116. How many contiguous spinal nerves are needed to be anesthesized during minor surgical intrusion of the skin?
    (3)
  117. Where does the chicekn pox virus lay dormant?
    In the nerves
  118. What does the chicken pox virus come back as later in life?
    Shingles
  119. What is a common medicaion for Shingles?
    Valtrex
  120. What type of fibers pass through the ventral ramus?
    Both sensory and motor
  121. What type of fibers pass through the dorsal root?
    Sensory Fibers
  122. What type of fibers pass through the dorsal ramus?
    Both sensory and motor
  123. What type of fibers pass through the ventral root?
    Motor Fibers
  124. What dermatome is the Nipple?
    T4
  125. What dermatome is the Navel?
    T10
  126. A lactating breast has increased...material
    glandular
  127. A non-lactating breast is mostly...?
    Fat
  128. The breast can be divided into ...? Name them...
    Quadrants

    1. Superomedial

    2. Superolateral

    3. Inferomedial

    4. Inferolateral
  129. In what (2) ways does the skin regulate body temp?
    1. Evaporation of Sweat

    2. Cooling of the blood
  130. What the the (4) receptive functions of the skin?
    1. Tactile

    2. Pain

    3. Pressure

    4. Thermal
  131. What are the (4) protective functions of the skin?
    1. Secretion

    2. Hair

    3. Pigment (Melanin from Melanocytes)

    4. Thickening (Extra layer of fat under skin of people whom live in cold climates)
  132. What are the (4) functions of the skin?
    1. Protection

    2. Regulation of Body Temp

    3. Reception

    4. Excretion/Absorption
  133. Where are the Ceruminous Glands located and what do they produce?
    1. Ear

    2. Ear Wax
  134. how many appendages of the skin are there? Name them...
    (6)

    1. Hair

    2. Nails

    3. Sweat Glands

    4. Sebaceous Glands

    5. Ceruminous Glands

    6. Mammary Glands
  135. How many types of skin are there? Name them...
    1. Thick (Palm and Sole of the Feet)

    2. Thin (Eye lids, abdomen, etc...)
  136. How many fibers are present in the skin? Name them...
    (3)

    1. Elastic

    2. Collagen

    3. Reticular
  137. The skin is divided into how many layers? Name them...
    (2)

    1. Epidermis

    2. Dermis
  138. What percent of carcinoma of the breast is located in the superolateral quadrant?
    60%
  139. True/False
    The breast is a modified sweat gland
    True
  140. Where is the Nipple located?
    Intercostal space 4 on top of the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor (between ribs 4 and 5)
  141. What dermatome is slight ly above the pubic bone?
    T12
  142. Where does 75% of the lyphatic drainage of the breast go?
    Axillary Lymph Nodes
  143. How many routes of lymph drainage are there from the breast? Name them...
    (5)

    1. Axillary Lymph Nodes

    2. Transpectoral

    3. Parasternal

    4. To the opposite breast

    5. Ligamentum Teres
  144. Where does the Ligamentum Teres drain?
    Liver
  145. Lymph drainage from the breast allows the spread of carcinoma to what (3) structures?
    1. Lungs

    2. Mediastinum

    3. Liver
  146. What are BRAC I and BRAC II?
    Genetic markers for breast cancer and ovarian cancer
  147. What (7) structures are removed in a radical mastectomy?
    1. Breast

    2. Axillary Lymph Nodes

    3. Parts of the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles

    4. Medial and lateral nerves

    5. Medial and lateral arteries

    6. Minor arteries

    7. Opposite breast
  148. What are stretch marks?
    Exterior evidence of the breaking of collagen fibers
  149. How many instances of male breat cancer are there each year?
    ~ 400
  150. Where is milk stored in the lactating breast?
    In the Lactiferous Sinus
  151. Term for the front surface of the body?
    Anterior or ventral
  152. Term for the back surface of the body
    Posterior or dorsal
  153. Term for away from the midline (median) of the body
    Lateral
  154. Term for toward the midline (median) of the body
    Medial
  155. Term for near or toward a point of reference, usually the trunk or midline of the body, or the beginning source of a part
    Proximal
  156. Term for away from a point of reference, usually the trunk of the body or the source of a part
    Distal
  157. Term for towrads the surface of the body
    Superficial or external
  158. Term for toward the midline of the body or structure
    Deep or central or internal
  159. Any engthwise vertical plane running from front to back, dividing the body or part of the body into right and left sides
    Sagittal
  160. Term for toward the head of the body or upper
    Superior or cephalic or cranial
  161. Term for the vertical plane dividing the body into (4) apparently symmetrical parts
    Paramedian
  162. Term for the vertical plane dividing the body into (2) apparently symmetrical halves
    Median
  163. Term for a crosswise plane dividing the body or any part of the body into upper and lower parts
    Transverse or horizontal
  164. Term for any lengthwise vertical plane running from side to side, dividing the body or any part of the body into anterior and posterior parts
    Frontal or coronal
  165. What (2) structures make up the Central Nervous System?
    1. Brain

    2. Spinal Cord
  166. What (6) strucutes make up the Peripheral Nervous System?
    1. Afferent System

    2. Efferent System

    3. Somatic Nervous System

    4. Autonamic Nervous System

    5. Sympathetic Nervous System

    6. Parasympathetic Nervous System
  167. What is the Afferent System?
    Sesnory messages from receptors in the periphery to the CNS
  168. What is the Efferent System?
    Motor messages from the CNS to effectors in the periphery
  169. Describe the Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
    Messages we control going from the CNS to skeletal muscle
  170. Describe the Autonamic Nervous System (ANS)
    Messages we can NOT control going from the CNS to Smooth muscle, Cardiac muscle, glands and skin
  171. How many cranial nerves are there? Name them...
    (12)

    I. Olfactory

    II. Optic

    III. Oculomotor

    IV. Trochlear

    V. Trigeminal

    VI. Abducent

    VII. Facial

    VIII. Vestibulocochlear

    IX. Glossopharyngeal

    X. Vagus

    XI. Accessory

    XII. Hypoglossal
  172. What is a ganglian?
    A collection of cell bodies in the CNS or elsewhere in the body (Ex. Sympathetic Trunk)
  173. What is a dendrite?
    The branched projection of a neuron that conducts the messages recieved from other nerve cells and sends these messages to the cell body
  174. What is a synapse?
    A junction that allows a neuron to pass electrical or chemical signals to another cell. The junction is a "space"
  175. How many spinal nerves are there? Name them...
    (31)

    (8) Cervical

    (12) Thoracic

    (5) Lumbar

    (5) Sacral

    (1) Coccygeal
  176. How many nerves make up the peripheral nervous system? Name them...
    (43)

    (12) Cranial Nerves

    (31) Spinal Nerves
  177. What cranial nerve also supplies structures outside the head and neck? Where are these structures located?
    1. Vagus Nerve (X)

    2. Thorax and Abdomen
  178. What nerves make up the Parasympathetic Nervous System? Neame them...
    Cranial Nerve III, VII, IX, and X

    Sacral Nerve 2, 3 and 4
  179. Name the (4) structures that supply blood to the breast
    1. Pectoral Branch of the Thoracoacromial Artery

    2. Lateral Thoracic Artery

    3. Posterior Intercostal Arteries

    4. Anterior perforating branches of the internal thoracic (mammary) artery
  180. Which of the spinal nerves are sensory, motor or both?
    All are both except for C1, which is only motor (Means it has no dorsal root)
  181. Which of the cranial nerves are sensory, motor or both?
    I. Sensory

    II. Sensory

    III. Motor

    IV. Motor

    V. Both

    VI. Motor

    VII. Both

    VIII. Sensory

    IX. Both

    X. Both

    XI. Motor

    XII. Motor
  182. What nerves make up the sympathetic nervous system?
    T1 thru T12

    L1 thru L2...sometimes L3
  183. Collagen heals by what when cut?
    Fibrosis
  184. What dermatome is the Hallux
    L4
  185. What dermatome is the Middle Finger?
    C7
  186. What dermatome is the Little Finger?
    C8
  187. What is the root value of a nerve and give (2) examples?
    The root value of a nerve is the spinal nerves that contribute to the nerves formation

    • Ex. #1 - Sciatic Nerve: L4, L5, S1, S2, S3
    • Ex. #2 - Phrenic Nerve: C3, C4, C5
  188. What is a distinct characteristic of the fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system?
    long pre-ganglianic fibers with short post-ganglianic fibers
  189. What is another name for the nerves of the parasympathetic nervous system?
    Pelvic Splanchnics
  190. What does the term Splanchinic mean?
    A nerve is called a splanchinic if it enters the sympathetic trunk then leaves without synapsing
  191. What spinal nerves make up the Greater Splanchnic and where do they synapse?
    T5 thru T9

    Celiac Ganglian
  192. What nevres make up the Lesser Splanchnic and where do they synapse?
    T10 thru T11

    Superior Mesenteric Ganglion
  193. What nerves make up the Lowest Splanchnic and where do they synapse?
    T12

    Aortico Renal Ganglion
  194. What nerves make up the Lumbar Splanchnic and where do they synapse?
    L1 thru L2

    Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion
  195. What is Fascia?
    A ixture of fat and connective tissue (a packaging material)
  196. How are the pleura named? Give (2) examples...
    According to where they are found

    Ex. #1 - Costal parietal pleura

    Ex. #2 - Diaphragmatic Visceral Pleura
  197. What is the name for the pleura over the apex of the lung in the thoracic inlet?
    Cupola...it is shaped like a cup
  198. Where is the Costo-Diaphragmatic Recess found?
    At the junction of the costal and diaphragmatic parietal pleura near the mid-axillary line
  199. Where is a Pleural Cavity Tap done?
    In the costo-diaphragmatic recess...intercostal space 9
  200. Name the (3) Pleural Recesses
    1. Costo-Diaphragmatic Recess

    2. Costo-Mediastinal Recess

    3. Costo-Vertebral Recess
  201. What is the function of the Pleural Recess?
    Allows expansion of lung during inspiration
  202. What (2) structures supply the Parietal Pleura with blood?
    1. Intercostal Artery

    2. Internal Thoracic Artery
  203. What structure supplies the Visceral Pleura with blood?
    Bronchial Artery
  204. What (3) nerves innervate the parietal pleura?
    1. Intercostal Nerves T1 thru T11

    2. Subcostal Nerve

    3. Phrenic Nerve
  205. Is the parietal pleura sensitive to pain?
    Yes, very sensitive to pain
  206. What nerves innervate the visceral pleura?
    None
  207. Is the visceral pleura sensitive to pain?
    No
  208. What is the nerve to the diaphragm?
    The phrenic nerve
  209. What (2) arteries come together to form the Brachiocephalic trunk?
    1. Right Subclavian Artery

    2. Right Common Carotid Artery
  210. What (3) major arteris come join the Aortic Arch?
    1. Left Subclavian Artery

    2. Left Common Carotid Artery

    3. Brachiocephalic Trunk
  211. What is the medial region between the (2) pleural cavities that contains all the structures in the chest except the lungs and pleural sacs?
    Mediastinum

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