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2011-09-07 15:08:46
Geology Chapter

Plate Techtonics
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  1. Cosmology
    the overall study of structure and history of the Universe
  2. Big Bang Theory
    formation of the universe
  3. Ptolemy (100-170CE)
    Egyptian mathematician developed equations that appeared to predict the wanderings of the plants in context of the geocentric mode. Church leaders adopted the model in the middle Ages.
  4. Copernicus (1473-1543) and Galileo Galilei (1564-164)
    discovered the earth and planets orbited the sun. There for the earth could not be the center of the universe.
  5. Issac Newton (1643-1727)
    explained gravity
  6. What accounts for the mass of the solar system?
    The sun accounts for 98.8% of the mass in the solar system. The remaining 0.2% includes a lot of objects including the rest of the planets.
  7. Planet
    an object that orbits a star, is spherical and has cleared its neighborhood of other objects.
  8. Our Solar systems
    8 plants not including Pluto. The plants surrounding the sun are terrestrial plants surrounded by a shell of rock surrounding a ball of metallic iron alloy. The outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) are gas giant planets that consist mostly of gas and ice. There are millions of asteroids (chunk of rock and/or metal). Comets (tails due to evaporation)
  9. Stars
    are immense balls of incandescent gas in which nuclear reactions produce heat and light. Holds galaxies together. The sun and over 300 billion stars form the milky way galaxy. More than 100 billion galaxies constitute the visible universe. The nearest galaxy to us is Andromeda which lies 2.2 million light years away. A light year is the distsnce traveled in one year (10 trillion km)
  10. Waves
    disturbances that transmit energy from one point to another by causing periodic motions. The distance between waves are wavelengths. The number of waves that pass thru a point in a given time is a frequency.
  11. Doppler effect
    Austrian physicist C.J. Doppler (1803-1853) interpreted the phenomenon and thus the change in frequency that happens when a wave sourse moves in now known as the Doppler effect. Light energy moves in waves.
  12. Expanding Universe Theory
    Edwin Hubble in the 1920�s discovered plants were moving away from each other.
  13. Big Bang Theory
    All matter and energy, everything that now constitutes the universe was initially packed into a infinitely small point, The point explodes 13.7 billion years ago. The universe was so small and dense. Formation of new nuclei in the first few minutes of time is called the big bang nucleosynthesis. Eventually the universe cooled enough for chemical bonds to bind atoms of certain elements together in molecules. The universe expanded into patchy clouds of nebulae.
  14. Birth of the first stars
    When the universe reach 200 mya, All matter is exerts gravitational pull. A protostar is formed that continues to grow by pulling in more mass. The protostar ignites to form a star. First generation stars formed which tended to be very massive reaching a 100x�s the sun which dies out faster which survives 1-10�s of millions of years and then go supernova. The universe contains 92 naturally occurring elements. There 87 more which a created during the lifecycle of stars which is called nucleosynthesis. The stream of atoms emitted from a star is called stellar wind. Second generation of stars were created which lived and died. Our sun may be 3, 4, or 5th generation.
  15. The Nubula Theory
    The sun and all other objects in the Solar System formed from material that been swirling around in the nebula. The outer part is called the proplanetary disk and it is the source of planets and moons. The disk consisted of 92 elements (volatile materials such as hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, water and carbon monoxide. The solar system formed about 9 bya after the big bang
  16. Magnetic Field
    it can repeal or attract meaning it has north and south poles. By trapping cosmic rays, the Van Allen belt protects life on earth from dangerous radiation.
  17. The Atmosphere
    An envelope of gas consisting of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen.
  18. At sea level the air pressure is 1 atm whereas on the peak of mt. everast it is 8.85 km above sea level the air pressure is 0.3 atm. Most winds and clouds develop in the lower layer in the troposphere. The order from base to top is stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere. There are pauses inbetween.
  19. Land and Oceans
    Some land surface consists of solid rock, whereas some a covering of sediment (materials such as sand and gravel, in which grains are not stuck together.
  20. 30% continent and islands. Surface water covers 70% of earth. Groundwater detected too.
  21. Topography
    the variation in elevation of the land, surface, defines plains, mountains, and valleys
  22. Bathymetry
    the variation in elevation of the ocean floor, defines submarine ridges, plains and deep trenches.
  23. Elements
    Produced by fusion reactions in stars and supernova explosions. 4 elements make up 90% of the earths surface: iron, oxygen, silicon, and magnesium. The remaining are the other 88% of the elements.
  24. Organic Chemicals
    Carbon containing living organisms or characteristics that resemble compounds in living organisms
  25. Minerals
    , natural substance in which atoms are arranged in orderly pattern
  26. Glasses
    Solid in which atoms are not arranged in an orderly pair
  27. Rocks
    Aggregates of material crystals or grains, masses of natural glass. Igneous rocks: molten liquid cools. Sedimentary: breaks from preexisting rocks or minerals that come out of water.
  28. Metamorphic
    preexisting rocks change in response to heat and pressure.
  29. Sediment
    Accumulation of loose mineral grains that have not stuck together.
  30. Metals
    solids composed of metal atoms ex(iron, aluminum, copper and tin)
  31. Melts
    solid material become hot and transform into liquids
  32. The earths internal layers:
    The inner layers are more dense. A crust (not so dense), mantle (denser solid), the core (very dense)
  33. Earthquakes:
    Ground shaking due to breaking of rocks on the earth. A fracture on which sliding occurs is a fault.
  34. Pressure and temp inside the earth
    The downward push from overlying rock increases with depth. At the center of the earth the pressure probably reaches about 3,600,000 atm. Depth rate of change temperature with depth is referred to as the geothermal gradient.