Chapter 1 Exam #1

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Chapter 1 Exam #1
2011-09-07 19:32:10

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  1. What happened to Ted Kacynski?
    A child genius becomes a social misfit and a murderer.
  2. Tell me about Alice Walker
    An impoverished and painful childhood leas to creativity and award-winning publications
  3. Defintion the word of "development"
    Pattern of change from conception, throughout the life span
  4. Five most important of studying development which are:
    • 1.) Improving children's lives
    • 2.) Improving health and well-being
    • 3.) Learning better parenting
    • 4.) Improving child education
    • 5.) Better social policies affecting children
  5. What is Medieval Europe's view of development?
    No distinction (any difference) from adults
  6. What's about 1800s' view of development?
    • Tabula Rasa and blank state
    • [The mind before it receives the impressions gained from experience.]
  7. The view of Eighteenth century is what?
    The development of child is innate goodness
  8. Today, the childhood development view of ours are what?
    Every childhood is unique
  9. Name three major theories for development
    • 1.) Evolutionary view by G.S. Hall
    • 2.) Psychoanalytic theory by S. Freud
    • 3.) Behaviorism by John Watson
  10. Define the Evolutionary view by G.S. Hall
    The stages of disticnt motives and capabilites
  11. What is Psychoanalytic theory by Frued?
    • Stage theory stressing parenting and
    • first five years influence later later
  12. What is Behaviorism defined by John Watson?
    Enviornment influnces behvaior
  13. What is Genetic epistemology?
    It's child's knowledge changes over development (J. Baldwin)
  14. Biological processes is defined as
    physical changes in a person
  15. Cognitive processes means what?
    It means change in thought, IQ and language
  16. Socioemotional processes are supposed to be:
    Personality, emotions, relationships
  17. Match the Period of Development:

    Early Childhood
    Middle/Late Childhood

    6 to 11 years (elementary years)
    conception to birth
    10 or 12 until 18 years (might be later)
    birth to 18-24 months of age
    Ifancy to 5-6 years old
    • Prenatal = Conception to birth
    • Infancy = birth to 18-24 months of age
    • Early childhood = infancy to 5-6 years
    • Middle/late childhood = 6 to 11 years
    • Adolescene = 10 or 12 until 18 years
  18. Nature VS Nuture
    Which one is applying the definition to:
    Influences of biological inheritance and development seen as orderly?
  19. Can you explain what is Nuture?

    Nature VS Nuture
    • INfluences of environment
    • Influenced by social experiences
    • Deprivation or enrichment have impact
  20. Define the continuity:
    Gradual, continous changes
  21. Discontinuity is defined as
    • Distinct stages, abrupt changes
  22. Personality theroy that Frued had come up with, name those three developments:
    • 1.) ID (unconscious instincts)
    • 2.) :Ego (executive branch of mind, deals with reality)
    • 3.) Superego (moral branch of mind, one's conscience
  23. Freud's Stages:
    Anal is in what stage?

    1.) 3 to 6 years
    2.) 6 to puberty
    3.) 18 months to 3 years
    4.) Birth to 18 months
    5.) Puberty onward
    3.) 18 months to 3 years
  24. Freud's Stages:
    Gential is in what stage?

    1.) 3 to 6 years
    2.) 6 to puberty
    3.) 18 months to 3 years
    4.) Birth to 18 months
    5.) Puberty onward
    5.) Puberty onward
  25. Freud's Stages:
    Phallic is in what stage?

    1.) 3 to 6 years
    2.) 6 to puberty
    3.) 18 months to 3 years
    4.) Birth to 18 months
    5.) Puberty onward
    1.) 3 to 6 years
  26. Freud's Stages:
    Latency is in what stage?

    1.) 3 to 6 years
    2.) 6 to puberty
    3.) 18 months to 3 years
    4.) Birth to 18 months
    5.) Puberty onward
    2.) 6 years to puberty
  27. Freud's Stages:
    Oral is in what stage?

    1.) 3 to 6 years
    2.) 6 to puberty
    3.) 18 months to 3 years
    4.) Birth to 18 months
    5.) Puberty onward
    4.) Birth to 18 months
  28. Can you tell me about E. Erikson's development theory?
    • Change occurs over life span in 8 stages
    • Each stage has unique crisis to resolve, not a castastrophe to future development if not resolved
    • Each stage has developmental task

  29. Strategies based on Erikson's Theory:
    • Nurture infants, develop trust, encourage and monitor autonomy
    • Encourage initative
    • Promote industry in elemetnary years
    • Stimulate adolsecent identity exploration
  30. According to Piaget's theory of four stages of cognitive development, name those four stages, define it and what years
  31. Vygotsky's Development theory for Sociocultural, what is it?
    • –Social
    • and cultural interaction guide cognitive development

    • –Child
    • needs interaction with more skilled adults and peers

    • –Interactions
    • teach adaptive skills for success

    • –Knowledge
    • is situated and collaborative

    • –Memory,
    • attention, reasoning involves learning to use society’s inventions
  32. How does information processing work?
    • –Capacity
    • is gradually developed (no stages)

    • –Comparing
    • computer to human brain

    • •Hardware
    • analogous to brain

    • •Software
    • analogous to cognition

    • –Emphasizes
    • how individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it

  33. What is behaviorism?
    • –Development
    • is observable behavior

    • –Behavior
    • is learned from environmental experiences

    • –Scientific
    • measurements possible

    • –Change
    • environment to affect behavior
  34. Name four major theorists
    • Skinner
    • Pavlov
    • Bandura
    • Watson
  35. Watson experimented who and what animal in order to discover the classical conitioning and what did he do?
    Little Albert with the white rat. He experimnted by instsalling fear in Little Albert everytime he heard noise, assumed that was white rat made the noise so Little Albert developed the fear of white rat.
  36. So, as for conditional or unconditional, nosie is which one?
    • Noise is unconditional for it was nothing to start with.
    • Fear of rat is the conditional
  37. Consequences of behavior change probability of behavior’s occurrence and use
    of punishments and rewards shapes behavior and development

    What is the word for the definition of above?
    Operant Conditioning
  38. Social Cognitive Theory developed by Bandura, it can be explained as:
    –Observational learning: use imitation or modeling to adopt behaviors

    • –Behavior, environment, and cognition are key
    • factors in development
  39. Behavior, environmental and person/cognitive

    Do they operate together or no?
    • Yes
  40. Ethological Theory
    Ethology stresses behavior influenced by what
  41. What is the example of Bowlbly?
    The goose hatchs from an egg, and spots any first movement of anything itself and assume that is goose's caretaker.

    • Bowlby: attachment to caretaker is important in first of life
    • It can be either positive or negative
  42. Additional notes on Ethological Theory
    • –Critical
    • (sensitive) periods for learning

    • –Lorenz
    • experiment: imprinting
  43. Development influenced by several environmental systems is which theory?
    Ecological theory

  44. There are five ways of research methods.

    1.) Pysiological measures (fMRI)
    2.) Standarized test (uniform procdures)
    What are other three?
    • 3.) Survey and Interview
    • 4.) Observation (laboratory ornaturalistic observation)
    • 5.) Case Study (in-depth on individual)
  45. There are two ways for data collection, what are those two and what they do?
    –Descriptive research: observe and record

    • –Correlational research: measure strength of association
    • •Correlation
    • coefficient – shows strength and direction, not causality
    • •Statistical
    • number
  46. Match the defintions (numbers) to the vocublaries (letters)

    1.) Independent variable
    2.) Dependent variable
    3.) Control group
    4.) Experimental group
    5.) Random assignment

    A.) (forms baseline measure)
    B.) (gets measured)
    C.) (assignment by chance)

    D.) (gets manipulated)
    E.) (gets manipulated)
    • 1 and D:
    • Independent variable (gets manipulated)
    • 2 and B:
    • Dependent variable (gets measured)
    • 3 and A:
    • Control group (forms baseline measure)
    • 4 and E:
    • Experimental group (gets manipulated)
    • 5 and C
    • Random assignment (assignment by chance)
  47. The Ethcical in Researches are
    Protect rights of reserach subjects and do not harm and adhere to code of ethics