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  1. kidney function
    • produces urine.removal of toxic waste products from the blood.regulate blood-pressure
    • They secrete an enzyme called renin,Several hormones are also produced in the kidney. One very important hormone produced by the kidney is called erythropoietin. It plays a key role in the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
  2. nutrition
    Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet.
  3. lifting mechanics
    The process of lifting places perhaps the greatest loads on the low back and therefore, has the highest risk of injury. Use of proper lifting mechanics and posture is critical to prevent injury. In the end, it is more important how you lift than how heavy a weight you lift. Here are a few tips on how to lift safely:

    • Place the load immediately in front of you.
    • Bend the knees to a full squat or lunge position.
    • Bring the load towards your chest.
    • Assume a neutral position with your back.
    • Tighten the lumbar and buttocks muscles to "lock" the back.
    • Lift now from the legs to the standing position.
    • DO NOT:

    • Lift from a twisted / sideways position.
    • Lift from a forward stooped / imbalanced position.
  4. patient advocacy
    You are an advocate, the person who speaks up for your patient and pleads his cause. It is your responsibility to address the patient’s needs and to bring any of his concerns to the attention of the hospital staff. You will have developed a rapport with the patient during your brief but very important time together, a rapport that gives you an understanding of his condition and needs. As an advocate, you will do your best to transmit this knowledge in order to help the patient continue through the EMS and hospital system. In your role as an advocate you may perform a task as important as reporting information that will enable the hospital staff to save the patient’s life — or as simple as making sure a relative of the patient is notified. Acts that
  5. the various factors that contribute to accidents
    Four factors contribute to the vast majority of collisions. In ascending order they are:

    • Equipment Failure
    • Roadway Design
    • Poor Roadway Maintenance
    • Driver Behavior
  6. types of consent
    • expressed consent : pt must legal age,informed and competent.
    • implied consent:act on belief that unconscious pt would want help
    • minor consent: consent given on behalf of minor by legal guardian
  7. muscular system
    The muscular system consists of the more than 600 muscles of the body and their associated fascia, tendons, tendon sheaths, and bursae. Muscles largely consist of skeletal muscle fibers, and are innervated by motor nerve fibers of peripheral nerves. Conscious and subconscious contractions of muscles affect body posture, and generate reflex, spontaneous (or automatic), and voluntary movements.
  8. skeletal system
    Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built. Almost all the hard parts of human body are components of human skeletal system. Joints are very important because they make the hard and rigid skeleton allow different types of movements at different locations.
  9. Kreb cycle
    • The Krebs cycle refers to a complex series of chemical reactions in all cells that utilize oxygen as part of their respiration process. This includes those cells of creatures from the higher animal kingdom, such as humans. The Krebs cycle produces carbon dioxide and a compound rich in energy, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This chemical provides cells with the energy required for the synthesis of proteins from amino acids and the replication of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
    • The Krebs cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), was first recognized in 1937 by the man for whom it is named, German biochemist Hans Adolph Krebs. His highly detailed and extensive research in the field of cellular metabolism and other scientific endeavors gleaned him the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1953. In short, the Krebs cycle constitutes the discovery of the major source of energy in all living organisms.
    • Within the Krebs cycle, energy in the form of ATP is usually derived from the breakdown of glucose, although fats and proteins can also be utilized as energy sources. Since glucose can pass through cell membranes, it transports energy from one part of the body to another. The Krebs cycle affects all types of life and is, as such, the metabolic pathway within the cells. This pathway chemically converts carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide, and converts water into serviceable energy.
  10. Diffusion
    Diffusion describes the spread of particles through random motion from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. The time dependence of the statistical distribution in space is given by the diffusion equation. The concept of diffusion is tied to that of mass transfer driven by a concentration gradient, but diffusion can still occur when there is no concentration gradient (but there will be no net flux).
  11. Osmosis
    Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, aiming to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.[1][2][3] It may also be used to describe a physical process in which any solvent moves, without input of energy,[4] across a semipermeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations.[5] Although osmosis does not create energy, it does release kinetic energy [6] and can be made to do work,[7] but is a passive process, like diffusion.Net movement of solvent is from the less-concentrated (hypotonic) to the more-concentrated (hypertonic) solution, which tends to reduce the difference in concentrations. This effect can be countered by increasing the pressure of the hypertonic solution, with respect to the hypotonic. The osmotic pressure is defined to be the pressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property, meaning that the osmotic pressure depends on the molar concentration of the solute but not on its identity.
  12. nervous tissue
    • Nervous tissue is one of four major classes of vertebrate tissue.
    • Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system - the brain, spinal cord, and nerves-which regulates and controls body functions. It is composed of neurons, which transmit impulses, and the neuroglia cells, which assist propagation of the nerve impulse as well as provide nutrients to the neuron.
    • Nervous tissue is made of nerve cells that come in many varieties, all of which are distinctly characteristic by the axon or long stem like part of the cell that sends action potential signals to the next cell.
    • Functions of the nervous system are sensory input, integration, controls of muscles and glands, homeostasis, and mental activity.
    • All living cells have the ability to react to stimuli. Nervous tissue is specialized to react to stimuli and to conduct impulses to various organs in the body which bring about a response to the stimulus. Nerve tissue (as in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that branch throughout the body) are all made up of specialized nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are easily stimulated and transmit impulses very rapidly. A nerve is made up of many nerve cell fibers (neurons) bound together by connective tissue. A sheath of dense connective tissue, the epineurium surrounds the nerve. This sheath penetrates the nerve to form the perineurium which surrounds bundles of nerve fibers. Blood vessels of various sizes can be seen in the epineurium. The endoneurium, which consists of a thin layer of loose connective tissue, surrounds the individual nerve fibers.
  13. Central nervous system CNS
    The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish. It contains the majority of the nervous system and consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Some classifications also include the retina and the cranial nerves in the CNS. Together with the peripheral nervous system, it has a fundamental role in the control of behavior. The CNS is contained within the dorsal cavity, with the brain in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the spinal cavity. In vertebrates, the brain is protected by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae, and both are enclosed in the meninges.[1]
  14. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.[1] The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs. Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the bone of spine and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, leaving it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system; some textbooks also include sensory systems. It is also a part of the nervous system.[2]
    • The cranial nerves are part of the PNS. The cranial nerve ganglia originate in the CNS however axons extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS.[3]
  15. autonomic nervous system (ANS or visceral nervous system)
    • The autonomic nervous system (ANS or visceral nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions.[1] The ANS affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, diameter of the pupils, micturition (urination), and sexual arousal. Whereas most of its actions are involuntary, some, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious mind.
    • It is classically divided into two subsystems: the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS).[1][2] Relatively recently, a third subsystem of neurons that have been named 'non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic' neurons (because they use nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter) have been described and found to be integral in autonomic function, particularly in the gut and the lungs.[citation needed]
    • With regard to function, the ANS is usually divided into sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) subsystems. Within these systems, however, there are inhibitory and excitatory synapses between neurons.
    • The enteric nervous system is sometimes considered part of the autonomic nervous system, and sometimes considered an independent system
  16. sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
    • The (ortho-) sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems. Its general action is to mobilize the body's resources under stress; to induce the fight-or-flight response. It is, however, constantly active at a basal level to maintain homeostasis.[1]Alongside the other two components of the autonomic nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system aids in the control of most of the body's internal organs. Stress—as in the flight-or-fight response—is thought to counteract the parasympathetic system, which generally works to promote maintenance of the body at rest. In truth, the functions of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are not so straightforward, but this is a useful rule of thumb.[1][2]
    • There are two kinds of neurons involved in the transmission of any signal through the sympathetic system; pre- and post- ganglionic. The shorter preganglionic neurons originate from the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord (levels T1 - L2, specifically) and travel to a ganglion, often one of the paravertebral ganglia, where they synapse with a postganglionic neuron. From there, the long postganglionic neurons extend across most of the body.[3]
    • At the synapses within the ganglia, preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on postganglionic neurons. In response to this stimulus postganglionic neurons - with two important exceptions - release norepinephrine, which activates adrenergic receptors on the peripheral target tissues. The activation of target tissue receptors causes the effects associated with the sympathetic system.[4]
    • The two exceptions mentioned above are postganglionic neurons innervating sweat glands—which release acetylcholine for the activation of muscarinic receptors - and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla develops in tandem with the sympathetic nervous system, and acts as a modified sympathetic ganglion: synapses occur between pre- and post- ganglionic neurons within it, but the post ganglionic neurons do not leave the medulla; instead they directly release norepinephrine and epinephrine into the blood.[5]
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