MS chapter 33 part 2
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Inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the larynx, possiby including edema of the vocal cords
What are symptoms of laryngitis
acute hoarseness, dry cough, difficulty swallowing, temp voice loss (aphonia)
what is an increasingly common cause of recurrent laryngitis.
Gastroesophagel reflux disease (GERD)
What are some treatments of laryngitis?
voice rest, steam inhalation, increased fluid intake, throat lozenges.
What would the nurse teach for relief measures/ infection prevention to a pt and family regarding influenza?
avoidance of alcohol, tobacco, and pollutants.
a highly contagious acute viral respiratory infection that can occur in adults of all ages sometimes leading to complications of pneumonia or death
what are some manifistations of of influenza?
severe headache, muscle ache, fever, chills, fatigue, weakness, and anorexia
vaccination is advisable for influenza. who is this especially recomended for?
- older than 50
- with chronic illness/immune compromise
- living in institutions (prison)
- health care personnel with direct pt contact
for influenza, antibiotics will have no effect. what agents may be effective to?
antivirals such as symmetrel and flumadine
an excess fluid in the lungs resulting from an inflammatory process triggered by many infectious organisms or by inhalation or irritaring agents.
What are the two types of pneumonia?
- CAP- community acquired pneumonia
- HAP- hospital acquired pneumonia- common nosocomial infection (acquired in hospital). This type is more likely going to be more sever because of it's tendency to resist antibiotics
for the prevention of pneumonia, it is important to encourage every adult older than 65 years and those who have a chronic health problem to recieve what vaccine?
PPV 23 vaccine
a type of hospital acquired pneumonia that results from endotracheal tubes in place for mechanical ventilation
VAP (ventilator acquired pneumonia). Hand hygiene, oral care and head of bed elevation can greatly reduce this risk
Pnuemonia can cause collapsed alveoli known as what?
can manifest from atelectasis as a reslut of the lungs innabilitly to oxgenate the blood moving through them
What is the most common diagnostic test for pneumonia?
Chest X ray.
What will a nurse see on an xray with a pt that has pnuemonia?
consolodation (solidification, and lack of air space)
what would you inquire of the pt's history who has pnuemonia?
smoker, on a ventilator (highest likely pt's), alcohol abuse, street drugs, past resp illness (influenza, pnuemonia),
what would the nurse be checking for during a physical assessment for a pt that has pneumonia?
crackles, wheezing,increase resp rate, dyspnea, purulent sputum, confusion
Because an older person who has pneumonia may not have a fever or cough, what should the nurse assess?
If the pt has acute confusion. (This is big indicator for older adults)
what would a nurse expect to find in the psychosocial assessment of a pt who has pnuemonia?
the pt often has pain, fatigue, and dyspnea, all of which promote anxiety
Why is a CBC test performed for a pt that has pnuemonia?
Want to know if they have elevated WBC
A gram stain, culture, and sensitivty test of sputum is done with a pt who has pnuemonia. why?
want to know what orgainism is causing the disorder.
Why are arterial blood gas levels performed on a pt who has pneumonia?
We want to determine the baseline arterial o2 and co2 to help identify the need for supplemental o2
why is a serum blood urea nitrogen level performed on a pt with pnuemonia?
We are looking for elevated BUN level (result of dehydration.
when assessing electrolytes, what should you particularly pay attention to when assessing a pt with pnuemonia?
Hypernatremia ( high na indicates dehydration) normal level: 135-145 mEq/l
also referred to as sustained maximal inspiration, is used to improve inspiratory mucle performance and to prevent or reverse atelectasis
what is a home care management teaching for a pt with pneumonia
Dont participate in activities that will increase fatigue and dyspnea
what are some health care teachings for a pt who has pnuemonia?
- Take all antibiotics
- balanced diet
- adequate fluids
- pnuemonia shots
- flu shots
- smoking cessation
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