Pathways

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Author:
tscott3408
ID:
100356
Filename:
Pathways
Updated:
2011-09-07 18:41:25
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pathways
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Pathways
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  1. Olfactory Pathway
    • 1. Axons of the olfactory neurons in the olfactory epithelium project through foramina in the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb
    • 2. Axons of neurons in the olfactory bulb project through the olfactory tract to the olfactory cortex or secondary olfactory areas
    • 3. The olfactory cortex is involved in the conscious perception of smell
    • 4. The medial olfactory area is involved in the visceral and emotional reaction to odors
    • 5. The intermediate olfactory area recieves input from the medial olfactory area and olfactory cortex
    • 6. Axons from the intermediate olfactory area project along the olfactory tract to the olfactory bulb. Action potentials carried by those axons modulate the activity of the neurons in the olfactory bulb
  2. Taste Pathway
    • 1. Axons of sensory neurons, which synpase, with taste receptors, pass through cranial nerves VII, IX, X and through the ganglion of each nerve
    • 2. The axons enter the brainstem and synapse in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius
    • 3. Axons from the nucleus of the tractus solitarius synapse in the thalamus
    • 4. Axons from the thalamus terminate in the taste area of the cortex
  3. Vision Pathway
    • 1. Light passes through the lens, light from each half of a visual field projects to the opposite side of the retina
    • 2. In the optic chiasm, axons from the nasal part of the retina cross and project to the opposite side of the brain. Axons from the temporal part of the retina don't cross
    • 3. An optic tract consists of axons that have passed through the optic chiasm to the thalamus
    • 4. The axons synapse in the lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus. Collateral branches of the axons in the optic tracts synapse in the superior colliculi
    • 5. The right part of each visual field projects to the left side of the brain and the left part of each visual field projects to the right side of the brain
  4. Hearing Pathways
    • 1. Sensory axons from the cochlear ganglion terminate in the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem
    • 2. Axons from the neurons in the cochlear nucleus project to the superior olivary nucleus or to the inferior colliculus
    • 3. Axons from the inferior colliculus project to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
    • 4. Thalamic neruons project to the auditory cortex
    • 5. Neurons in the superior olivary nucleus send axons to the inferior colliculus, back to the inner ear or to motor nuclei in the brainstem that send efferent fibers to the middle ear muscles
  5. Balance Pathway
    • 1. Sensory axons from the vestibular ganglion pass through the vestibular nerve to the vestibular nucleus, which also receives input from several other sources
    • 2. Vestibular neruons send axons to the cerebellum
    • 3. Vestibular neruons also send axons to motor nuclei
    • 4. Vestibular neruons also send axons to the posterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus
    • 5. Thalamic neurons project to the vestibular area of the cortex

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