AP Exam 1
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What are the specialties in physiology?
cellular, organ, systemic, pathological
What is autoregulation of homeostasis?
- inside body
- automatically adjusts to enviro changes
- sweating in 106o weather
What is extrinsic regulation of homeostasis?
- stimulation by endocrine or nervous system
What are the homestatic regulatory mechanisms?
- variable: (something that changes)
- receptor: (a sensor)
- control center: ( receive & process info then sends it out)
- effector: (responds to signal received)
- set point: ( desired value/range)
What is negative feedback?
reverses a stimulus
What is positive feedback?
enhances orig stimulus
What are the 5 things of cell theory?
- cells are building blocks
- cells come from pre-existing cells
- fund unit of structure
- same in chemical comp
- maintains homeostasis @ cellular level
What is extracellular/interstitial fluid?
water median outside the cell
What is cytoplasm/ cytosol/ organelles?
- cytoplasm: all contents in the cell
- cytosol: liquid in the cell
- organelles: all structures in the cell
What is the plasma membrane? & its primary functions?
- outer boundary of the cell
- structural support
- physical seperation
- sensitivity to environment
Define: phospholipid bilayer
2 layers of phospholipids
What are phospholipids?
- hydrophilic phosphorus head on outside & inside of cell
- hydrophobic tails on inside of plasma membrane
Define: integral proteins
- part of membrane structure
- not easily removed w/o causing damage
- bound to inner or outer surface of membrane
- easily seperated
Define: anchoring proteins
attach plasma membrane to other structures & stabilize its position
Define: recognition proteins (identifiers)
cells of immune system identify other cells as normal or abnormal
increases reactions in the body
Define: receptor proteins
sensitive to specific ions & hormones
Define: carrier proteins
bind solutes & transport them across the plasma membrane
Define: channel proteins
allow substances to cross from one side to another
Give the structure and function of the cytoskeleton
- internal structure of cell, filament & tubules
- support, strength, flexibility
manuf warehouse - walls
Give the structure and function of the microvilli
- fingerlike extensions of cell membrane
- increase surface area of cell
in factory - increase # of workers, more work will get done
Give the structure and function of the centrioles
- short cylindrical structures of microtubules, in a pair, 2 pairs per cell
- in cellular division - produce spindle fibers
Give the structure and function of the centrosome
- cytoplasm surrounding centrioles
- helps in movements of chromosomes in cellular division
Give the structure and function of the cilia
- hairlike extensions on outer surface of cell
- help move material across outer surface
- move debris
conveyor belts in factory
Give the structure and function of the ribosomes
- 2 subunits - lg & sm, scattered throughout cytoplasm, roaming, some fixed on ER
- protein synthesis (make protein)
Give the structure and function of the proteasomes
- protein & digestive enzymes
- remove & recycle old damaged proteins
Give the structure and function of the Rough endoplasmic reticulum
- ribsosomes on outside network of channels
- modify & package proteins together
post office (sort & distribute)
Give the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
- smooth surface (no ribosomes) network of channels in cytoplasm
- lipid & carbohydrate synthesis, hormones, synthesize & store glycerides & glycogen
Give the structure and function of the golgi apparatus
- 5-6 stacks of flattened membraneous structures
- transport proteins from ER & sends toother areas where needed
- membrane renewal\
FedEX truck - transporting pkgs
Give the structure and function of the lysosome
- vesicle that contains powerful digesting enzymes
- intracellular digestion (cleans up old organelles)
Give the structure and function of the peroxisome
- vesicles containing digestive enzymes
- break down fatty acids, organic compounds, neutralize toxic chemicals, free radicals
Give the structure and function of the mitochondria
- 2 membranes, folded inner membrane
- energy production
- ATP is produced here
Give the structure and function of the nucleus
- largest structure in the cell, double membrane, DNA
- control center
boss of warehouse
Give the structure and function of the nucleolus
- dense region, RNA, enzymes & proteins
- ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, assembly of ribosomes
factory for ribosomal prod
What is protein synthesis?
assembling of functional polypeptides in the cytoplasm
property of cell
nothings moving; nothing can pass
Define: freely permeable
anything can pass
Define: selectively permeable
selective things can pass through
What is the passive process?
door is open, easy to get across membrane
What is the active process?
door is closed, use ATP to get across membrane
movement of high concentration to low concentration solutes
What are the factors that affect the rate of diffusion?
- distance- shorter the faster rate of diff
- temp- higher temp faster diff
- size- smaller faster diff
- gradient size- lg gradient faster diff
- electrical forces- oppo forces diffuse faster
What material diffuse across a cell membrane?
What is simple diffusion?
alcohol, fatty acids, steroids, oxygen, carbon dioxide, fat soluble drugs easily diffuse across membrane
What is channel-mediated diffusion?
- water can pass through a channel easily
- ions may pass through depending on size etc
What is osmosis?
- movement of water
- low concent to high concent
__________ & ________ fluids are solutions that contain a variety of dissolved materials.
In osmosis the membrane is ___________ permeable. _________permeable to water but not freely permeable to solutes.
In osmosis, water passively diffuses ________ the solution with higher concentration of solutes , b/c that's where the concentration of water is lower.
Define: osmotic pressure
force of osmotic water movement
Define: hydrostatic pressure
Define: carrier mediated transport
any substance that can't possibly diffuse
What are the characteristics of carrier mediated transport?
- specificity- carry only specific functions
- saturation llimits- availability
- regulation- binding of molecules, hormones
Most carrier proteins can only carry one type of molecule/ion across the membrane, but there are some exceptions: .... they are
- cotransport (transports 2 diff subst in same dir)
- counter transport (1 subst in, 1 moving out)
Define: facilitated diffusion
movement of substance across plasma membrane by means of a carrier protein
Define: active transport
requires energy (ATP) to move substance across
Define: sodium potassium exchange pump
- homeostasis within the cell depends on the ejection of sodium ions and the recapture of lost potassium ions
- need ATP
Define: secondary active transport
- move substrate across concentration gradient
- (dont need ATP)
define: vesicular transport (bulk transport)
allows material to move in and out of cells but must be transported in a vesicle
What is endocytosis?
materials pkg & move into the cell
In endocytosis what is receptor-mediated?
bringing specific substances into the cell
In endocytosis what is pinocytosis "cell drinking"?
bringing in extracellular fluid
In endocytosis what is phagocytosis "cell eating"?
engulfing large particles from outside to inside
going out of cell
What is transmembrane potential?
- potential differences across a plasma membrane
- in mV
What is resting membrane potential?
the transmembrane potential of a normal cell under homeostasis
What is the role of the plasma membrane?
- acts as a dam
- keeps oppo charges away from each other
In interphase what is G0?
cell is at rest
In interphase what is G1?
prepare for division
In interphase what is S?
In interphase what is G2?
What is mitosis?
dividing of chromosomes
What happens in prophase?
- centrioles produce spindle fibers
- nuclear envelope disappers
- chromosomes floating around
What happens in Metaphase?
chromosomes line up at the middle
What happens in anaphase?
splitting apart of chromosomes
What happens in telophase?
- chromosomes condense
- new nuclear envelope (2 nuclei)
- end of mitosis
What happens in cytokinesis?
seperation of 2 daughter cells
What are the 6 functions of the skin?
- protection (underlying tissues,organs)
- body temp reg ( insulation, release heat)
- cutaneous sensations (touch pressure, pain)
- vit D synthesis (calcium metab)
- excretion (salts & water)
- storage of lipids ( insulation, protection)
What is the cutaneous membrane?
skin : -epidermis & dermis
What is the hypodermis?
- subcutaneous layer
- fatty layer of skin
- anchors skin to body
- energy reserve
What are the 4 cells in the epidermis?
- keratinocytes ( body most abund epith cell, sev layers, lg amts of keratin)
- melanocytes (produce pigment melanin)
- merkel cells (tactile cells, translate sensory resposes)
- langerhan's cells ( participate in immune response)
What is thick skin vs thin skin?
- thick - palms & soles, 5 layers thick
- thin- covers most of body, 4 layers
What is stratum germinativum (basale)?
- very bottom layer
- 1 single layer of cells
- does mitosis regularly
What are epidermal ridges and dermal papillae?
- ridges and vallies found in thick skin
- fingerprints & foot prints
What is the stratum spinosum?
- 8-10 layers thick
- begins to shrink a little
- still dividing a little
What is the stratum granulosum?
- 3-5 layers
- stopped dividing
- produces lots of keratin
- cells cont to shrink
- nuclei & organelles begin to die
- (last place you'll see anything living)
What is the stratum luacidum?
- flattened, densely packed
- thick skin only
What is the stratum corneum?
- 15-30 layers
- dead, calcified, flake off
- 75% of epidermis thickness
- water-proofing system
- act as protective layer
What is the dermis?
- strong, flexible connec tissue
- blood vessels
- nerve fibers
What are the 2 layers of the dermis? Explain each.
- papillary (capillaries, lymphatics, sensory neurons that supply surface of skin)
- reticular (deep to papillary, roots, hairs, thick)
What is the dermal strength and elasticity?
collagen (strength) and elastic fibers (elasticity)
Water content in the skin helps maintain its ___________ and _________. Known as "skin tugor".
Aging, horomones and UV radiation, damage ______ in the dermis, resulting in _________.
What is Dermatitis?
- inflammation of the dermis
- primarily involves the papillary layer
What is melanin?
brown, yellow-brown or black pigment
Racial differences in melanin production is caused by:
color and amt of melanin produced
patches of accumulated melanin
The effect of UV lights on melanin production increases melanin production & makes skin _________ to prevent UV light from entering the body.
What is carotene?
- orange-yellow pigment
- usually in fair skinned indiv
What is hemoglobin?
- reddish pigment
- related to blood
What is cyanosis?
- reductions in blood supply
- lips, nail beds
What is pallor?
- lack of reddish skin tone
- anemia, inadq blood flow
- lips, nail beds, pink part of eye
What is Jaundice?
- live is not excreting enough bile
- often found in babies
- whites of eyes, skin
What is bronzing (addison's disease or tumor of pituitary glands)?
- skin darkens
- melanocytes stimulating hormone excreted in excess
- produces more melanin
What is the function of hair?
- sensory stimulation
- filtration (catching debris)
What are the structures of the hair?
- shaft (part you can see)
- root ( anchors hair down in dermis)
- hair bulb (onion shape base)
- papilla (point or very bottom of hair bulb)
- matix (reproduces hair)
What is the arrector pili muscles?
- causes hair to stand on end
What is the root hair plexus?
sensory nerves that allow you to feel things before thye reach your skin
What are vellus hairs? (peach fuzz)
- covers main part of body
- armpit, pubic area until puberty
What are terminal hairs?
- heavy, more deeply pigmented, sometimes curly, course
- head, eyelashes, eyebrows, pubic hair, legs, arms, armpits,
What is club hair?
end of growth cycle, follicle becomes inactive and stops growing
partial/complete lack of hair
What are other causes of hair loss?
- emotional trauma
- dietray factors
- hormonal factors
What are sebaceous (oil) glands?
- everywhere on body but palms and soles (everywhere theres a hair)
- secretes: sebum
- softens skin, moisturizes hair, prevents water loss, inhinit bacteria growth
- not assoc w/ hair, face, chest, neck, back
- secrete on surface of skin
What is cradle cap/dandruff?
- overactive oil glands
- dried up oil that flakes off
What are apocrine sweat glands?
- located: armpits, groin
- secrete into a hair follicle
- sticky, cloudy, pot odorus
- good nutrient source for bacteria
- stimulated by sex hormones, sex
What are merocrine sweat glands?
- located: palms, soles, forehead
- secretes on surface of skin
- mostly water and some NaCl
What are cereminous glands?
- passageway of external ear
- produces earwax
What are the structures of the nail?
- nail body (visible portion)
- nail bed (area of epidermis nail body covers)
- nail root ( not visible, near bone)
- lunula ( pale cresent @ bottom on nail)
- eponychium (cuticle)
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