MT Chapter 3 Summary of Terms

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kellim5
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MT Chapter 3 Summary of Terms
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2011-09-08 08:46:47
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Integumentary system terms medical terminology
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Integumentary Terms
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  1. a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the inflammation of surrounding tissues, which heals when drained or excised
    • abscess
    • (abscessus = a going away)
    • diagnostic term
  2. inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin, evidenced by comedones (blackheads), pustules, or nodules on the skin
    • acne
    • (acne = point)
    • diagnostic term
  3. cells covering external and internal surfaces of the body
    • epithelium
    • anatomic term
  4. thin outer layer of the skin
    • epidermis
    • anatomic term
  5. flat, scale-like epithelial cells comprising the outermost epidermis
    • squamous cell layer
    • anatomic term
  6. deepest layer of epidermis
    • basal layer
    • anatomic term
  7. cell in the basal layer that gives color to the skin
    • melanocyte
    • anatomic term
  8. dark brown to black pigment contained in melanocytes
    • melanin
    • anatomic term
  9. dense, fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin, also known as corium
    • dermis
    • anatomic term
  10. oil glands in the skin
    • sebaceous glands
    • anatomic term
  11. oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands
    • sebum
    • anatomic term
  12. sweat glands
    • sudoriferous glands
    • (sudor = sweat; ferre = to bear)
    • anatomic term
  13. connective and adipose tissue layer just under the dermis
    • subcutaneous layer
    • anatomic term
  14. protein substance in skin and connective tissue
    • collagen
    • (koila = glue; gen = producing)
    • anatomic term
  15. outgrowth of the skin composed of keratin
    • hair
    • anatomic term
  16. outgrowth of the skin, composed of keratin, at the end of each finger and toe
    • nail
    • anatomic term
  17. hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails
    • keratin
    • anatomic term
  18. an area of pathologically altered tissue; the two types are primary and secondary
    • lesion
    • symptomatic term
  19. lesions arising from previously normal skin
    • primary lesions
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
  20. a flat, discolored spot on the skin up to 1 cm across (e.g., a freckle)
    • macule or macula
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Flat, Nonpalpable Changes in Skin Color
  21. a flat, discolored area on the skin larger than 1 cm (e.g., vitiligo)
    • patch
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Flat, Nonpalpable Changes in Skin Color
  22. a solid mass on the skin up to 0.5 cm in diameter (e.g., a nevus {mole})
    • papule
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Elevated, Palpable Solid Masses
  23. a solid mass greater than 1 cm in diameter and limited to the surface of the skin
    • plaque
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Elevated, Palpable Solid Masses
  24. a solid mass greater than 1 cm that extends deeper into the epidermis
    • nodule
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Elevated, Palpable Solid Masses
  25. a solid mass larger than 1-2 cm
    • tumor
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Elevated, Palpable Solid Masses
  26. an area of localized skin edema (swelling) (e.g., a hive)
    • wheal
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Elevated, Palpable Solid Masses
  27. little bladder; an elevated, fluid-filled sac (blister) within or under the epidermis up to 0.5 cm in diameter (e.g., a fever blister)
    • vesicle
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Elevations Formed by Fluid Within a Cavity
  28. a blister larger than 0.5 cm (e.g., a second-degree burn)
    • bulla
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Elevations Formed by Fluid Within a Cavity
  29. a pus-filled sac (e.g., a pimple)
    • pustule
    • symptomatic term
    • Primary Lesions
    • Elevations Formed by Fluid Within a Cavity
  30. lesions that result in changes in primary lesions
    • secondary lesions
    • symptomatic term
    • Secondary Lesions
  31. gnawed away; loss of superficial epidermis, leaving an area of moisture but no bleeding (e.g., area of moisture after rupture of a vesicle)
    • erosion
    • symptomatic term
    • Secondary Lesions
    • Loss of Skin Surface
  32. an open sore on the skin or mucous membrane that can bleed and scar; sometimes accompanied by infection
    • ulcer
    • symptomatic term
    • Secondary Lesions
    • Loss of Skin Surface
  33. a scratch mark
    • excoriation
    • symptomatic term
    • Secondary Lesions
    • Loss of Skin Surface
  34. a linear crack in the skin
    • fissure
    • symptomatic term
    • Secondary Lesions
    • Loss of Skin Surface
  35. a thin flake of exfoliated epidermis (e.g., dandruff)
    • scale
    • syptomatic term
    • Secondary Lesions
    • Material on Skin Surface
  36. a dried residue of serum (body liquid), pus, or blood on the skin (e.g., as seen in impetigo)
    • crust
    • syptomatic term
    • Secondary Lesions
    • Material on Skin Surface
  37. lesions of a blood vessel
    • vascular lesions
    • symptomatic term
    • Vascular Lesions
  38. a small, round, bright red blood vessel tumor on the skin, often on the trunk of the elderly
    • cherry angioma
    • symptomatic term
    • Vascular Lesions
  39. a tiny, red blood vessel lesion formed by the dilation of a group of blood vessels radiating from a central arteriole, most commonly on the face, neck, or chest
    • talangiectasia or
    • spider angioma
    • (telos = end)
    • symptomatic term
    • Vascular Lesions
  40. purpura; lesions resulting from hemorrhages into the skin
    • purpuric lesions
    • symptomatic term
    • Purpuric Lesions
  41. spot; reddish-brown, minute hemorrhagic spots on the skin that indicate a bleeding tendency; a small purpura
    • petechia
    • symptomatic term
    • Purpuric Lesions
  42. bruise; a black and blue mark; a large purpura
    • ecchymosis
    • (chymo = juice)
    • symptomatic term
    • Purpuric Lesions
  43. a mark left by the healing of a sore or wound, showing the replacement of destroyed tissue by fibrous tissue
    • cicatrix of the skin
    • (cicatrix = scar)
    • symptomatic term
    • Scar Formations
  44. an abnormal overgrowth of scar tissue that is thick and irregular
    • keloid
    • (kele = tumor)
    • symptomatic term
    • Scar Formations
  45. skin tumors arising from the epidermis
    • epidermal tumors
    • symptomatic term
    • Epidermal Tumors
  46. a congenital malformation on the skin that can be epidermal or vascular; also called a mole
    • nevus
    • symptomatic term
    • Epidermal Tumors
  47. a mole with precancerous changes
    • dysplastic nevus
    • symptomatic term
    • Epidermal Tumors
  48. an epidermal tumor caused by a papilloma virus, also called a wart
    • verruca
    • symptomatic term
    • Epidermal Tumors
  49. baldness; natural or unnatural deficiency of hair
    • alopecia
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  50. a plug of sebum (oil) within the opening of a hair follicle
    • comedo
    • pl. comedos, comedones
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  51. a comedo below the skin surface, with a white center (whitehead)
    • closed comedo
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  52. a comedo open to the skin surface, with a black center caused by the presence of melanin exposed to air (blackhead)
    • open comedo
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  53. appearance of a skin lesion
    • eruption
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  54. redness of skin
    • erythema
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  55. severe itching
    • pruritus
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  56. a general term for skin eruption, most often associated with communicable disease
    • rash
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  57. skin color resulting from the presence of melanin
    • skin pigmentation
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  58. loss of melanin pigment in the skin
    • depigmentation
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  59. areas of skin lacking color because of deficient amounts of melanin
    • hypopigmentation
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  60. darkened areas of skin caused by excessive amounts of melanin
    • hyperpigmentation
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  61. production of purulent matter (pus)
    • suppuration
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  62. hives; an eruption of wheals on the skin accompanied by itching
    • urticaria
    • (urtica = stinging nettle)
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  63. dry skin
    • xeroderma
    • General Symptomatic Terms
  64. a hereditary condition characterized by a partial or total lack of melanin pigment (particularly in the eyes, skin, and hair)
    • albinism
    • Diagnostic Term
  65. injury to body tissue caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation, or gases
    • burn
    • Diagnostic Term
  66. a burn involving only the epidermis; characterized by erythema (redness) and hyperesthesia (excessive sensation)
    • first-degree burn
    • Diagnostic Term
  67. a burn involving the epidermis and the dermis; characterized by erythema, hyperesthesia, and vesications (blisters)
    • second-degree burn
    • Diagnostic Term
  68. a burn involving all layers of the skin; characterized by the destruction of the epidermis and dermis, with damage or destruction of subcutaneous tissue
    • third-degree burn
    • Diagnostic Term
  69. inflammation of the skin characterized by erythema, pruritus (itching), and various lesions
    • dermatitis
    • Diagnostic Term
  70. any disorder of the skin
    • dermatosis
    • Diagnostic Term
  71. an eruption of the skin caused by a viral disease (exanthema = eruption)
    • exanthematous viral disease
    • (exanthema = eruption)
    • Diagnostic Term
  72. reddish; German measles
    • rubella
    • Diagnostic Term
  73. reddish; 14-day measles
    • rubeola
    • Diagnostic Term
  74. a tiny spot; chickenpox
    • varicella
    • Diagnostic Term
  75. to boil out; often used interchangeably with dermititis to denote a skin condition characterized by the appearance of inflamed, swollen papules and vesicles that crust and scale, often with sensations of itching and burning
    • eczema
    • Diagnostic Term
  76. boil; a painful nodule formed in the skin by inflammation originating in a hair follicle; caused by staphylococcosis
    • furuncle
    • Diagnostic Term
  77. a skin infection consisting of clusters of furuncles
    • carbuncle
    • (carbo = small, glowing embers)
    • Diagnostic Term
  78. an eating sore; death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply
    • gangrene
    • Diagnostic Term
  79. transient viral vesicles; (e.g., cold sores or fever blisters) that infect the facial area, especially the mouth and nose
    • herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)
    • (herpes = creeping skin disease)
    • Diagnostic Term
  80. sexually transmitted, ulcer-like lesions of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa; after initial infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root and may recur at times of stress
    • herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
    • Diagnostic Term
  81. a viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following affected nerves, usually unilateral; also known as shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • (zoster = girdle)
    • Diagnostic Term
  82. a highly contagious, bacterial skin inflammation marked by pustules that rupture and become crusted, most often around the mouth and nostrils
    • impetigo
    • Diagnostic Term
  83. thickened areas of epidermis
    • keratoses
    • Diagnostic Term
  84. localized thickening of the skin caused by excessive exposure to sunlight, a known precursor to cancer
    • actinic (or solar) keratoses
    • (actinic = ray; solar = sun)
    • Diagnostic Term
  85. benign, wart-like tumors; more common on elderly skin
    • seborrheic keratoses
    • Diagnostic Term
  86. a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of various parts of the body
    • lupus
    • (lupus = wolf)
    • Diagnostic Term
  87. limited to the skin; evidenced by a characteristic rash, especially on the face, neck, and scalp
    • cutaneous lupus
    • Diagnostic Term
  88. a more severe form of lupus involving the skin, joints, and often vital organs (e.g., lungs or kidneys)
    • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    • Diagnostic Term
  89. skin cancer
    • malignant cutaneous neoplasm
    • Diagnostic Term
  90. malignant tumor of the squamous epithelium
    • squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
    • Diagnostic Term
  91. malignant tumor of the basal layer of the epidermis; the most common type of skin cancer
    • basal cell carcinoma (BCC)
    • Diagnostic Term
  92. malignant tumor composed of melanocytes
    • malignant melanoma
    • Diagnostic Term
  93. malignant tumor of the walls of blood vessels, appearing as painless, dark bluish-purple plaques on the skin; often spreads to the lymph nodes and internal organs; commonly seen in patients with HIV/AIDS
    • Kaposi sarcoma
    • Diagnostic Term
  94. inflammation of the fingernail or toenail
    • onychia
    • Diagnostic Term
  95. inflammation of the nail fold
    • paronychia
    • Diagnostic Term
  96. infestation with lice that causes itching and dermatitis
    • pediculosis
    • (pedicula = louse)
    • Diagnostic Term
  97. head lice
    • pediculosis capitis
    • (capitis = head)
    • Diagnostic Term
  98. lice that generally infect the pubic region and sometimes also hair of the axilla, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, or other hairy body surfaces; also called crabs
    • pediculosis pubis
    • (pubis = groin)
    • Diagnostic Term
  99. itching; a chronic, recurrent skin disease marked by silvery scales covering red patches, papules, and/or plaques on the skin that result from overproduction and thickening of skin cells; common sites of involvement are the elbows, knees, genitals, arms, legs, scalp and nails
    • psoriasis
    • Diagnostic Term
  100. a contagious disease caused by a parasite (mite) that invades the skin, causing an intense itch, most often at articulations between the fingers or toes, elbow, etc.
    • scabies
    • (scabo = to scratch)
    • Diagnostic Term
  101. a skin condition marked by the hypersecretion of sebum from the sebaceous glands
    • seborrhea
    • Diagnostic Term
  102. a group of fungal skin diseases identified by the body part affected, including tinea corporis (body), commonly called ringworm, and tinea pedis (foot), also called athlete's foot
    • tinea
    • Diagnostic Term
  103. a condition caused by the destruction of melanin that results in the appearance of white patches on the skin (commonly the face, hands, legs, and genital areas)
    • vitiligo
    • Diagnostic Term
  104. removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic pathologic
    • biopsy (Bx)
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  105. removal of an entire lesion
    • excisional biopsy
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  106. removal of a selected portion of a lesion
    • incisional biopsy
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  107. a technique using a surgical blade to "shave" tissue from the epidermis and upper dermis
    • shave biopsy
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  108. a technique of isolating and growing colonies of microorganisms to identify a pathogen and to determine which drugs might be effective for combating the infection it has caused
    • culture and sensitivity (C&S)
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  109. a surgical technique that involves cutting a thin piece of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathologic examination
    • frozen section (FS)
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  110. methods for determining the reaction of the body to a given substance by applying it to, or injecting it into, the skin; commonly used in treating allergies
    • skin tests
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  111. a test in which a substance is applied to the skin through a scratch
    • scratch test
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  112. a test in which a substance is applied topically to the skin on a small piece of blotting paper or wet cloth
    • patch test
    • Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  113. removal of tissue after it has been destroyed by chemical means
    • chemosurgery
    • Operative Term
  114. a technique for restoring wrinkled, scarred, or blemished skin by applying an acid solution to "peel" away the top layers of the skin
    • chemical peel
    • Operative Term
  115. destruction of tissue by freezing with application of an extremely cold chemical (e.g., liquid nitrogen)
    • cryosurgery
    • Operative Term
  116. surgical removal of epidermis frozen by aerosol spray using wire brushes and emery papers to remove scars, tattoos, and/or wrinkles
    • dermabrasion
    • Operative Term
  117. removal of dead tissue from a wound or burn site to promote healing and to prevent infection
    • debridement
    • Operative Term
  118. cleaning; scraping a wound using a spoon-like cutting instrument called a curette; used for debridement
    • curettage
    • Operative Term
  119. use of electric current to destroy tissue; the type and strength of the current and method of application vary
    • electrosurgical procedures
    • Operative Term
  120. use of an instrument heated by electric current (cautery) to coagulate bleeding areas by burning the tissue (e.g., to sear a blood vessel)
    • electrocautery
    • Operative Term
  121. use of high-frequency electric currents to destroy tissue by drying it; the active electrode makes direct contact with the skin lesion
    • electrodesiccation
    • (desiccate = to dry up)
    • Operative Term
  122. to lighten; use of long, high-frequency, electric sparks to destroy tissue; the active electrode does not touch the skin
    • fulguration
    • Operative Term
  123. incision and drainage of an infected skin lesion (e.g., an abscess)
    • incision and drainage (I&D)
    • Operative Term
  124. an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an instrument that concentrates high frequencies of light into a small, extremely intense beam that is precise in depth and diameter;applied to body tissues to destroy lesions or for dissection (cutting of parts for study)
    • laser
    • Operative Term
  125. surgery using a laser in various dermatologic procedures to remove lesions, scars, tattoos, etc.
    • laser surgery
    • Operative Term
  126. a technique used to excise tumors of the skin by removing fresh tissue, layer by layer, until a tumor-free plane is reached
    • Mohs surgery
    • Operative Term
  127. transfer of skin from one body site to another to replace skin that has been lost through a burn or injury
    • skin grafting
    • Operative Term
  128. graft transfer to a new position in the body of the same person
    • autograft
    • (auto = self)
    • Operative Term
  129. graft transfer between different species, such as from animal to human
    • heterograft or xenograft
    • (hetero = different; xeno = strange)
    • Operative Term
  130. donor transfer between persons of the same species, such as human to human
    • homograft or allograft
    • (homo = same)
    • Operative Term
  131. treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
    • chemotherapy
    • Therapeutic Term
  132. treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to deter the proliferation of malignant cells
    • radiation therapy
    • Therapeutic Term
  133. use of sclerosing agents in treating diseases (e.g., injection of a saline solution into a dilated blood vessel tumor in the skin, resulting in hardening of the tissue within and eventual sloughing away of the lesion)
    • sclerotherapy
    • Therapeutic Term
  134. use of ultraviolet light to promote healing of a skin lesion (e.g., an ulcer)
    • ultraviolet therapy
    • Therapeutic Term
  135. a drug that temporarily blocks transmission of nerve conduction to produce a loss of sensations (e.g., pain)
    • anesthetic
    • Common Therapeutic Drug
  136. a drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
    • antibiotic
    • Common Therapeutic Drug
  137. a drug that kills or prevents the growth of fungi
    • antifungal
    • Common Therapeutic Drug
  138. a drug that blocks the effects of histamine in the body
    • antihistamine
    • Common Therapeutic Drug
  139. a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions, causing swelling and inflammation of tissues (e.g., in urticaria {hives}, hay fever, etc.)
    • histamine
    • Common Therapeutic Drug
  140. a drug that reduces inflammation
    • antiinflammatory
    • Common Therapeutic Drug
  141. a drug that relieves itching
    • antipruritic
    • Common Therapeutic Drug
  142. an agent that inhibits the growth of infectious microorganisms
    • antiseptic
    • Common Therapeutic Drug

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