Anatomy

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Author:
alannaheeres
ID:
100390
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2011-09-09 15:20:58
Tags:
Intro Human Body
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Description:
Ch. 1
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  1. Describe the anatomical position
    • – standing upright
    • – facing the observer, head level
    • – eyes facing forward
    • – feet flat on the floor
    • – arms at the sides
    • – palms turned forward
  2. Why is the anatomical position useful?
    It is easier to visualize and understand how it is organized into various regions.
  3. Reclining body lying face down:
    prone position
  4. Reclining body lying face up:
    Supine position
  5. 5 regions of the body that can be identified externally
    • head: skull & face
    • neck:
    • trunk: chest, abdomen, pelvis
    • upper limbs: shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist, hand
    • lower limbs: buttocks, thigh, leg, ankle, foot
  6. A vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides
    Sagittal plane
  7. A vertical plan that divides the body or organ into equal right and left sides
    midsagittal plane or median plane
  8. If the sagittal plane does not pass through the midline but instead divides the body or organ into unequal right and left sides
    parasagittal plane
  9. Divides the body or organ into upper and lower portions.
    • Transverse plane
    • aka cross-sectional plane or horizontal plane
  10. Passes through the body at an angle between a transverse plane and a sagittal plane or between a transverse plane and a frontal plane
    Oblique plane.
  11. Divides the body or organ into front and back portions.
    • Frontal plane
    • aka coronal plane
  12. Toward the head, or the upper part of a structure
    Superior
  13. Away from the head, or the lower part of a structure
    Inferior (ventral)
  14. Nearer to or at the front of the body
    Anterior
  15. Nearer to or at the back of the body
    Posterior (dorsal)
  16. Nearer to the midline
    Medial
  17. Farther from the midline.
    Lateral
  18. Between two structures
    Intermediate
  19. On the same side of the body as another structure
    Ipsilateral
  20. On the opposite side of the body from another structure.
    Contralateral
  21. Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure.
    Proximal
  22. Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure.
    Distal
  23. Toward or on the surface of the body
    Superficial (external)
  24. Away from the surface of the body
    Deep (internal)
  25. Cavity that contains the brain.
    Cranial cavity
  26. Canal that contains the spinal cord.
    Vertebral (spinal) canal
  27. Three layers of protective tissue that lines the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal.
    Meninges (me-NIN-jez)
  28. Cavity formed by the ribs, the muscles of the chest, the sternum and the thoracic portion of the vertebral column.
    Thoracic cavity
  29. Within the thoracic cavity, this contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that surrounds the hear, and two pleural cavities
    Pericardial cavity
  30. Surrounds one lung and contains a small amount of lubricating fluid
    Pleural cavity
  31. The anatomical region between the medial walls of the two pleural cavities and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column, and from the rib to the diaphragm.
    Mediastinum (me-de-as-TI-num)
  32. The mediastinum contains these organs (note: note the lungs)
    heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus
  33. A dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
    Diaphragm
  34. Subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities.
    Abdominopelvic cavity
  35. Cavity that contains: stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine and most of the large instestine; the serous membrane of this cavity is the peritoneum.
    Abdominal cavity.
  36. Contians urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction.
    Pelvic cavity
  37. Term for the organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
    Viscera
  38. atoms and molecules essential for life
    – include carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,
    calcium, sodium and potassium
    – atoms interact to form complex molecules and
    compounds with distinctive functions, i.e,
    carbohydrates, fats, proteins and nuclei acids
    Chemical Level
  39. Groups of molecules combine to form cells
    – Cells are the basic structural and functional unit
    of an organism
    Cellular Level
  40. What are the four main types of tissues?
    • -- Muscle
    • – Nervous
    • – Connective
    • – Epithelial
  41. – Tissues consist of similar types of cells, with similar embryonic origin and act together to perform specialized functions – There are four main types of tissues
    Tissue level
  42. grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a
    recognizable structure with a specific function.
    Organ level
  43. – collection of related organs with a common function
    – i.e. digestive system, reproductive system
    Organ system
  44. – The highest level of organization
    – All parts work together to provide a normal and
    stable environment
    Organismic level
  45. 2 subdivisions
    – cranial cavity
    • holds the brain
    • formed by skull
    – vertebral or spinal canal
    • contains the spinal cord
    • formed by vertebral
    column
    Dorsal Body Cavity
  46. • 2 subdivisions
    – thoracic cavity above
    diaphragm
    – abdominopelvic cavity
    below diaphragm
    Ventral body cavity
  47. Inferior portion of ventral body cavity below diaphragm
    • Encircled by abdominal wall, bones & muscles of pelvis
    Abdominopelvic Cavity
  48. What are the Abdominopelvic Regions
  49. What are the Abdominopelvic Quadrants?
  50. Identify the common regional names (insert pic)
  51. What are the 11 body systems?
    • 1.Cardiovascular
    • 2. Digestive
    • 3. Endocrine
    • 4. Lymphatic
    • 5. Muscular
    • 6. Nervous
    • 7. Reproductive
    • 8. Respiratory
    • 9.Skeletal
    • 10. Integumentary (AKA skin)
    • 11. Urinary systems
  52. What are the six levels of structural organization?
    • 1. Chemical Level
    • 2. Cellular Level
    • 3. Tissue Level
    • 4. Organ Level
    • 5. System Level
    • 6. Organismal Level

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