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Describe the anatomical position
- – standing upright
- – facing the observer, head level
- – eyes facing forward
- – feet flat on the floor
- – arms at the sides
- – palms turned forward
Why is the anatomical position useful?
It is easier to visualize and understand how it is organized into various regions.
Reclining body lying face down:
Reclining body lying face up:
5 regions of the body that can be identified externally
- head: skull & face
- trunk: chest, abdomen, pelvis
- upper limbs: shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist, hand
- lower limbs: buttocks, thigh, leg, ankle, foot
A vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides
A vertical plan that divides the body or organ into equal right and left sides
midsagittal plane or median plane
If the sagittal plane does not pass through the midline but instead divides the body or organ into unequal right and left sides
Divides the body or organ into upper and lower portions.
- Transverse plane
- aka cross-sectional plane or horizontal plane
Passes through the body at an angle between a transverse plane and a sagittal plane or between a transverse plane and a frontal plane
Divides the body or organ into front and back portions.
- Frontal plane
- aka coronal plane
Toward the head, or the upper part of a structure
Away from the head, or the lower part of a structure
Nearer to or at the front of the body
Nearer to or at the back of the body
Nearer to the midline
Farther from the midline.
Between two structures
On the same side of the body as another structure
On the opposite side of the body from another structure.
Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure.
Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure.
Toward or on the surface of the body
Away from the surface of the body
Cavity that contains the brain.
Canal that contains the spinal cord.
Vertebral (spinal) canal
Three layers of protective tissue that lines the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal.
Cavity formed by the ribs, the muscles of the chest, the sternum and the thoracic portion of the vertebral column.
Within the thoracic cavity, this contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that surrounds the hear, and two pleural cavities
Surrounds one lung and contains a small amount of lubricating fluid
The anatomical region between the medial walls of the two pleural cavities and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column, and from the rib to the diaphragm.
The mediastinum contains these organs (note: note the lungs)
heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus
A dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity.
Subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Cavity that contains: stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine and most of the large instestine; the serous membrane of this cavity is the peritoneum.
Contians urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction.
Term for the organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
atoms and molecules essential for life
– include carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,
calcium, sodium and potassium
– atoms interact to form complex molecules and
compounds with distinctive functions, i.e,
carbohydrates, fats, proteins and nuclei acids
Groups of molecules combine to form cells
– Cells are the basic structural and functional unit
of an organism
What are the four main types of tissues?
- -- Muscle
- – Nervous
- – Connective
- – Epithelial
– Tissues consist of similar types of cells, with similar embryonic origin and act together to perform specialized functions – There are four main types of tissues
grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a
recognizable structure with a specific function.
– collection of related organs with a common function
– i.e. digestive system, reproductive system
– The highest level of organization
– All parts work together to provide a normal and
– cranial cavity
• holds the brain
• formed by skull
– vertebral or spinal canal
• contains the spinal cord
• formed by vertebral
Dorsal Body Cavity
• 2 subdivisions
– thoracic cavity above
– abdominopelvic cavity
Ventral body cavity
Inferior portion of ventral body cavity below diaphragm
• Encircled by abdominal wall, bones & muscles of pelvis
What are the Abdominopelvic Regions
What are the Abdominopelvic Quadrants?
Identify the common regional names (insert pic)
What are the 11 body systems?
- 2. Digestive
- 3. Endocrine
- 4. Lymphatic
- 5. Muscular
- 6. Nervous
- 7. Reproductive
- 8. Respiratory
- 10. Integumentary (AKA skin)
- 11. Urinary systems
What are the six levels of structural organization?
- 1. Chemical Level
- 2. Cellular Level
- 3. Tissue Level
- 4. Organ Level
- 5. System Level
- 6. Organismal Level