histology tidbits

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  1. hematoxylin
    basic dye that stains DNA/RNA
  2. eosin
    acid dye that stains non-DNA/non-RNA cell components
  3. glutaraldehyde/osmium tetroxide
    EM; fixes cells/tissues using heavy metals
  4. another name for organelles
    "small organs"
  5. another name for cell membrane
  6. polar head
    glycerol conjugated via a phosphate bridge to a nitrogenous compound such as choline, ehtanolamine or serine
  7. examples of receptor proteins
    adenoreceptor, adenylate cyclase/cAMP system
  8. examples of adhesion proteins
    selectins, integrins, cadherins
  9. another name for cytoplasm
    "matrix": contains organelles, inclusion bodies, cytoskeletal elements (microT, microF, intF)
  10. lamins
    inner mem of nuc env has attachment sites for lamins; filamentous prot; maintain shape and integrity of nuc env (cell division)
  11. transfer vesicle
    btw ER and golgi
  12. secretory vesicle
    • btw golgi and surface
    • condenses to form vesicles/granules
  13. lysosomes/osteoclasts
    lysosomes are stored for varying times in osteoclasts/WBC (comparative to secretory granules in other cells)
  14. constitutive secretion
    rapid, continuous; prod do not accumulate w/in cell; few secretory granules

    i.e. ECM by fibroblasts
  15. regulated secretion
    episodic, lots secretory granules

    i.e. hormone stim secretion of dig enz from pancreas
  16. acid phosphatase
    enz in lysosome
  17. primary lysosome
    hydrolytic enz only
  18. secondary lysosome
    aka phagolysosome; primary lysosome + phagosome; has hydrolytic enz and ingested material being lysed
  19. tertiary bodies
    aka residual; multiple vesicles/membranous mat bounded by mem; older/end stage remnants of secondary lysosomes
  20. residual bodies
    may contain pigmented mat called lipofuscin (aging pigment), which remains in neurons and cardiac muscle cells
  21. Tay Sach's disease
    ex of lysosomal storage disease; hexosaminidase A deficiency results in abnormal accumulation of ganglioside
  22. peroxisomes
    form from sEr and pre-existing peroxisomes; prod H2O2 (toxic to cells) and breaks down H2O2 via catalase
  23. microbodies
    aka peroxisomes
  24. adrenoleukodystrophy
    impaired beta oxidation of fatty acids leads to abnormal lipid storage in CNS and adrenal glands; ex of defect in peroxisomal enz
  25. proteosome constituents
    core particle + regulatory particle
  26. inclusion bodies
    non-mem bound in cytoplasm or nuc; DOES NOT include cytoskeletal elements
  27. lipid droplet
    inclusion body; stores fatty acids as triglycerides (adipose cell, adipocyte)
  28. glycogen granules
    inclusion body; stores glucose as glycogen (liver cell)
  29. kinesin movement
    - to +
  30. axoneme
    9x2+2 of cilia/flagella
  31. centriole and tubulin relationship
    centrioles assoc w/ g-tubuli which is responsible for microT assembly (nucleation)
  32. nesprin
    outer nuc mem prot; mediates microT dep positioning of nuc w/in cell
  33. sun
    inner nuc mem prot
  34. nesprin-sun complex
    connect to microT via kinesin to the nuc; important in polarized cells w/ specialized functions (i.e. lining columnar cells of SI)
  35. elementary particle
    ETC molecules; anything assoc w/ inner mit matrix
  36. viblasatine/vincristine
    inhibits tubulin polym in cancer cells; loss of microT usage in cell division; derived from plant alkaloid
  37. colchicine
    inhibits tubulin polym and therefore inhib leukocyte migration and phagocytosis and inflammation; derived from plant alkaloids

    rxs pain and inflammation assoc w/ gouty arthritis
  38. microvilli and actin
    microF are the linking structural support of microvilli to terminal web
  39. neutrophils and microF relationship
    microF imp in neutrophil migration to areas of inflammation; defects in microF leads to predisposition to bact infection in diseases such as diabetes mellitus
  40. actin-scaveneger/actin toxicity
    actin released from dying cells into ECM and general circulation; leads to hepatic necrosis, septic shock, adult respiratory syndrome and prego disorders; leads to general disruption of platelet func and normal vascular flow
  41. gelsolin
    aka actin-deactivating factor; binds to actin in circulation and disrupts it; reduces actin to G actin + gelsolin
  42. Group-specific component protein (Gc)
    takes G actin + gelsolin complex and binds it to plasmalemma of hepatocytes which take it up for degradation and excretion
  43. neurofibrillary tangles
    alzheimer's; composed of masses of neurofilaments (intF) aka degenerated neurons; also seen in Down's syndrome brains
  44. CAMs importance
    • cell migration in embryogenesis
    • holding tissues together in adult
    • inflammation/wound healing
    • tumor metastasis
    • signal transmission
  45. zonula occludens
    "tight junctions"; composed of sealing strands (formed from row of TM prot embedded in both PMs)
  46. claudins and occludins
    zonula occludens prot; anchor tight junctions to intracellular actin (microF)
  47. zonula occludens func
    • hold cells together
    • block mvmt of integral mem prot
    • prevents passage of mol and ions btw cells
  48. zonula adherens
    "belt juncitons"; epithelial cells
  49. cadherin, alpha catenin, beta catenin
    zonula adherens prot
  50. cadherin prot family
    desmosome, desmoglein, desmocollin
  51. intF and desmosomes
    desmosomes are attached to intracellular keratin or desmin filaments
  52. desmosome function
    resist shearing forces; in simple and stratified squamous epithelium and muscle tissue
  53. blistering (bullous) diseases
    due to misfunctioning desmosomes
  54. pemphigus vulgaris
    blistering disease due to genetic defects in desmosomal prot or autoimmune response
  55. nexus
    aka gap junction; composed of prot complexes (connexons) btw adjacent cells
  56. acrocentric chrom
    p is a nub, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 chrom

    • stalks=secondary constricts, aka NOR
    • satellites=chrom distal to stalk
  57. giemsa, quinicrine
    stain banding patterns of chrom
  58. alpha/beta importin
    receptor on prot entering nuc pore
  59. BRCA 1 prot
    reg of cell cycle in nuc; in breast cancer it is in cytoplasm bc mut doesn't allow its transport into nuc; same for p53
  60. emerin
    integral prot w/in inner nuc mem; member of nuclear lamina-assoc prot family
  61. Dreifuss-Emery MD
    X-linked inherited degenerative myopathy resulting from mut in emerin gene
  62. MPF functions
    • condense DNA
    • spindle apparatus
    • nuc env breakdown
  63. aneuploid cells
    70% of human cancers
  64. microscopical chrom
    first appear in prophase of mitosis
  65. bivalence of homologous chrom
    aka tetrad of four chrom
  66. maturation division
    aka meisosis II
  67. pseudoautosomal regions
    on X and Y chrom; allows pairing bc they are non homologous
  68. heteropyknosis
    aka inactived X chrom
  69. When does X chrom inactivation occur?
    blastocyst stage
  70. TGF-beta, interferons, TNF
    growth inhibiting factors to terminate/inhibit cell division; decreases cyclin levels and affects spindle function
  71. Robertsonian translocation
    involves two acrocentric chrom that fuse near centromeric region w/ loss of short arms...resulting karyotype only has 45 chrom

    most common are chrom 13 and 14; phenotypically normal
  72. Philadelphia chrom
    translocation of 9 and 22; CML results
  73. epithelium derivations
    all three germ layers!
  74. sarcomas
    cancer from endothelium and mesothelium
  75. carcinomas
    true epithelial cancers
  76. stratified vs simple
    stratified do not have junctional complexes but do have individual cell junctions such as desmosomes
  77. plaque
    anchoring prot inside epithelial cell that binds to integrins and cytokeratin filaments
  78. apical surface area
    increased by microvilli and stereocilia
  79. stereocilia
    characteristic of epididymis and proximal vas deferens; not motile
  80. basal infoldings
    basal side; has lots mit for energy prod
  81. sesnsory cilia
    provide chemosensation, thermosensation, and mechanosensation of EC env; non-motile
  82. goblet cell
    single cell of exocrine gland
  83. formed gland
    multiple cells of exocrine gland
  84. merocrine secretion
    aka eccrine; exocytosis; i.e. ant pit secretion of TSH

    serous, mucous, seromucous
  85. apocrine secretion
    release of secretory inclusions and granules w/ small amt of apical cytoplasm and cell mem; i.e. mammary gland secretion of lipids in milk prod
  86. holocrine secretion
    secretory prod retained w/in cell which dies; then entire cell w/ prod is released
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histology tidbits
2011-09-08 03:17:24

MS1/Mod 1: Histology
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