Psychology Ch.4-6

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Psychology Ch.4-6
2011-09-12 22:55:41

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  1. Zygote-
    largest human cell, about the size of a grain of sand. When an egg is fertilized.
  2. Genes-
    •specific segment on the long strand of DNA that contains instructions for making proteins
  3. Proteins-
    •chemical building blocks from which all the parts of the brain and body are constructed
  4. Genetic factors-
    –Researchers are discovering how genetic factors interact with the environment in the development of mental retardation, emotional and personality traits, mental disorders, and various cognitive abilities
  5. evolution of the human brain-
    1859 Charles Darwin
  6. Theory of Evolution-
    –Different species arose from a common ancestor and that those species that survived were best adapted to meet the demands of their environment
  7. natural selection-
    genes for traits that help an organism survive
  8. Evolutionary approach
    studies how exolutionary ideas, explain human behaviors and mental processes
  9. Major divisions of the nervous system-
    Central and Peripheral
  10. Central Nervous System
    made up of the brain and spinal cord.
  11. Peripheral Nervous System
    –Includes all the nerves that extend from the spinal cord and carry messages to and from various muscles, glands, and sense organs located throughout the body
  12. Subdivisions of the PNS-
    -Somatic, Autonomic, Sympathetic, and Parasympathetic
  13. Somatic Nervous System
    –Network of nerves that connect either to sensory receptors or to muscles that you can move voluntarily, such as muscles in your limbs, back, neck, and chest
  14. Automatic Nervous System
    regulates heart rate, breathing, blood pressure.....etc...
  15. Sympathetic Division-
    triggered by threatening physical stimuli
  16. Parasympathetic Division
    returns the body to a calmer state and is involved in digestion
  17. Major parts if the brain
    Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain,
  18. Hindbrain is sepertaed into...
    pons, medulla, and cerebellum
  19. Forebrain-
    largest part of the brain. has right and left sides called hemispheres
  20. Midbrain-
    has a pleasure center. has areas for visual and auditory reflexes
  21. Pons-
    Functions on a bridgeto interconnect messages between the spinal cord and brain
  22. Medulla
    located on the top of the spinal cord. Has a group of cells that control vital reflexes
  23. Cerebellum
    located in the very back and underneath the brain. Involved in coordinatin motor movements
  24. Four lobes
    -Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, nd Temporal
  25. Frontal lobe-
    personality, emotions and moter behaviors
  26. Parietal lobe-
    perception and sensory experiences
  27. Occipital lobe-
    visual processing
  28. Temporal lobe-
    hearing and speaking
  29. Limbic System: Old brain
    regulating many behaviors such as food, drink, and sex, with organizing emotional behaviors.
  30. Hypothalamus-
    motivational behaviors
  31. Amygdala
    recieves input from all the senses
  32. Thalamus-
    recieving sensory info, doing inital processing and then relaying the sensory info to the cortex
  33. Hippocampus-
    saving many kinds of fleeting memories
  34. Endocrine system
    glands secrete chemicals called horomones. Glands are pituitary, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal glands, and gonads.
  35. Pittuitary gland-
    posterior regulates water and salt. Anterior regulates growth through secretion of growth horomone
  36. Pancreas-
    regulates the level of sugar in bloodstream
  37. thyroid-
    regulates metabolism through secretion of horomones
  38. adrenal glands
    adrenal cortex secretes horomones.Adrenal medulla secretes two horomones that arouse the body to deal with stress and emergencies
  39. adrenaline
  40. Gonads
    Females- ovaries produce horomones that regulate sexual development. Males- testes produve horomones that regulate sexual development
  41. Transduction
    process in which a sense organ changes
  42. Adaption-
    the decreasing response of the sense organs as they're exposed to a continuous level of stimulation
  43. sensation versus perception
    sensations are meaningless. and perceptions are meaningful sensory experiences.
  44. perceptions
    meaningful sensory experiences that result after the brain combines hundreds of sensations
  45. Eyes perform two sperate processes. and what is this called?
    first: gather and focus light into precise area in the back of the eye. second: area absorbs and transforms light waves into electrical impulses. -transduction
  46. Vision: seven steps
    imae revered, light waves, cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina.
  47. Iris-
    controls the amount of light entering the eye
  48. lens
    focuses light waves into even narrower beam
  49. Rods
    activated by small amounts of light, photoreceptor that contain a single chemical
  50. Cones
    contain three chemicals called opsins, allow us to see color
  51. Optic nerve
    impules flow through the nerve as it exits from the back of the eye
  52. Sound waves
    stimuli for hearing
  53. frequency
    number of sound waves occuring within a second
  54. Loudness
    sound's intensity
  55. pitch
    high or low
  56. outer ear-
    external ear, auditory canal, and tympanic membrane
  57. Enternal Ear
    pick up sound waves and send them down the auditory canal
  58. auditory canal
    long tube that funnels sound
  59. Tympanic membrane
    sounds cause it to vibrate
  60. Middle ear's ossicles
    hammer, anvil, and stirrup
  61. cochlea
    transforms vibrations into nerves impulses sent to brain
  62. vestibular system
  63. surface of tongue
    chemicals break down into molecules, then mix with saliva, and molecules then stimulate taste buds
  64. taste buds-
    produce nerve impulses that reach areas of the bain's parietal lobe
  65. steps for olfaction
    stimulus, olfactory cells, sensation and memories, and functions of olfaction
  66. Stimulus
    skunk spray, perfumes, brownies
  67. Olfactory cells
    the cells trigger nerve impulses that travel to the brain, which interprets the impulses into smells
  68. Functions of olfaction
    to intesify the taste of food, to warn of potentially dangerous foods, and to elicit strong memories, and aid in choosing a mate.