Biology Unit 1

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Biology Unit 1
2011-09-07 22:58:09

Unit 1
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  1. Contrast biotic and a-biotic factors
    Biotic factors are the factors in an environment that are living. A-biotic factors are non-living.
  2. List the characteristics of living things
    • All living things:
    • composed of cells, reproduce, pass genetic info, use and require energy from their surroundings, grow and develope, must maintain a constant internal environment, consists of organic compounds, evolve, respond to environmental stimuli
  3. Explain the theory of biogenesis
    all cells come from pre-existing cells
  4. Explain the theory of spontaneous generation
    theory that life came from non-living things
  5. Define metabolism
    requiring food and energy from surroundings
  6. Contrast the terms "grow" and "develop"
    Grow is to get bigger. Develop is to mature and change.
  7. Define homeostasis and give several examples
    to maintain a constant internal environment. heart rate respiritory rate, sweat
  8. Define atoms:
    smallest unit of matter
  9. Define molecules:
    created when two or more atoms are bonded together
  10. Define cells
    the smallest working unit of life
  11. Define tissue
    a group of cells performing a specific function
  12. Define Organ
    a group of tissues performing the same function
  13. Define species
    A group of living things that interbreed and produce fertile offspring
  14. Define population
    a goup of the same species in a specific area
  15. Define community
    all living things in an area
  16. Define ecosystem
    all living and non-living things in an area
  17. List the steps of the scientific method in order
    • 1 observe and question
    • 2 form a hypothesis
    • 3 test the hypothesis
    • 4 make a conclusion based on the data collected
  18. Explain what a controlled experiment is. What are controlled variables? What are manipulative variables?
    is when you only change one variable in the expeiriment. CV are everthing in the expeiriment that are kept the same. MV is the one thing in the experiment that is changed
  19. Contrast the terms autotrophic and heterotrophic
    auto produces its own food hetero needs to find or get food
  20. Contrast the terms prokaryotic and eukaryotic
    • pro- simple cells no nucleus or organelles
    • euk- complex nucleus with organelles
  21. Contrast the terms multicellular and unicellular
    • multi- many cells
    • uni- one cell
  22. Describe some characteristics of the kingdom archaebacteria
    uni pro some autotrophic some hetero don't need breathable oxygen live in harsh environments
  23. Define some characteristics of the kingdom eubacteria
    uni, pro, some hetero so autotrophic live pretty much everywhere, can cause human diseise some benifital to life
  24. Describe some characteristics of the kingdom protista
    mostly uni some multi, eukaryotic, aquatic, most diverse kingdom,
  25. Describe some characteristics of the kingdom fungi
    multi, eukaryotic, live on land, hetero obsorb food
  26. Describe some characteristics of the kingdom plantae
    multi, eukaryotic, autotrophic, live mostly on land some in sea, have cell walls and chlorophyll
  27. Describe some characteristics of the kingdom animalia
    multi, euk, hetero, reproduce sexually, do not have cell walls or chorophyll, internal digestion, mobile
  28. Know your element symbols
  29. Describe the basic structure of any atom.
    • nucleus in center nuetrons and protons in nucleus electrons in orbit
    • 2-8-8
  30. Describe what gives an atom its mass (which particles make up the majority of the mass of the atom)
    protons, neutrons, and the nucleus
  31. Define atomic number
    is the number of protons in an atom
  32. Define mass number
    is the amount of protons + neutrons in an atom
  33. Define isotope and be able to determine mass #, atomic #, proton #, neutron # and electron #
  34. Be able to count atoms in a chemical formula
  35. Describe how an ionic bond forms
    when two atoms want to be like a noble gas and one gives electrons and the other gains electrons leaving an ion
  36. Describe how a covalent bond forms
    when atoms want to be like a noble gas and they share electrons
  37. Describe how hyrdogen bonds form
    because of the polarity the slightly + hydrogen is attracted to the slightly - Oxygen making a hydrogen bond
  38. Explain why water is a polar molecule
    the stronger element in the covalent bond pulls the weaker towards it giving the oxygen a slighly - charge and the hydrogen a slightly + charge
  39. How do ions form (both positive and negative ions)
    ions are formed when atoms lose or gain electrons
  40. Contrast the terms cohesion and adhesion
    • cohesion substance sticking to same substance
    • adhesion substance sticking to different substance
  41. Define suspension
    when materials don't dissolve into a substance
  42. Define solution
    when a material does dissolve into the other substance
  43. What is a solute? What is a solvent?
    • solute- gets dissolved
    • solvent- does dissolving
  44. List the four different categories of organic macromolecules and their monomers
    • proteins- amino acid
    • carbohydrates- sugar
    • lipids- fatty acid
    • nucleic acid- nucleotide
  45. Contrast simple sugars and polysaccharides
    • simple sugars last a short time
    • polysacchireds have longer strand of carbon making the energy last longer.
  46. Contrast saturated and unsaturated fats
    • un has double bonds and less hydrogen and fatty acid
    • saturated has fatty acid and long strands of hydrogen
  47. Describe the chemical structure of any carbohydrate (atoms and ratio)
    C,H,O 1:2:1
  48. Describe some importantces of carbohydrates to living things
    give us energy to have metabolism
  49. Describe some importances of lipids to living things
    long term energy storage help make cell walls, and make sex hormones
  50. Describe some importances of proteins to living things
    • they help us grow nails and hair
    • structual component of organisms
    • act as enzymes speed up reactions in the body
    • helps carry oxygen in blood throughout the body
  51. Describe some importances of nucleic acids to living things
    • DNA
    • Found in chromosomes
    • Controls our traits
  52. Describe how you would test for the presence of lipids, simple sugars, polysaccharides and proteins in a lab setting
    • lipids: place the identified food on paper towel let dry if still translucent it contains lipids
    • simple sugars: Put Benidicts solution and the identified food in test tubes and put in hot water bath for 5-10 minutes if it has simpple sugars it turns green or orange or red or yellow
    • polysaccharides: put iodine and the identified food in test tubes swirl around if purple then it contains polys
    • Protein: Biuret's solution in test tubes with the identified food and swirl around if purple it contains proteins
  53. organ system
    a group of organs performing the same function
  54. Organism
    a living thing made of multiple systems working together to maitain homeostasis
  55. Biosphere
    the part of earth were living things can survive