MUSC 136

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MUSC 136
2011-09-07 23:55:43

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  1. Melody
    Succession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as a unity
  2. Interval
    Distance and relationship between two pitches
  3. Phrase
    Musical unit; often a component of a melody
  4. Rhythm
    The controlled movement of music in time
  5. Meter
    Organization of rhythm in time; the grouping of beats into larger, regular patterns, noted as measures
  6. Upbeat
    Last beat of a measure, a weak beat, which anticipates the downbeat
  7. Triple Meter
    Basic metrical pattern of three beats to a measure
  8. Compound meter
    Meter in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than two
  9. Nonmetric
    Music lacking a strong sense of beat or meter, common in certain non-Western cultures
  10. Chord
    Simultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony
  11. Consonance
    Concordant or harmonious combination of tones that provides a sense of relation and stability in music
  12. Triad
    Common chord type, consisting of three pitches built on alternate tones of the scale (e.g. 1-3-5 or do-mi-so)
  13. Whole Steps
    Interval consisting of two half steps or semi-tones
  14. Sharp (sign)
    Musical symbol that indicates raising a pitch by a semi-tone
  15. Minor (scale)
    Scale consisting of seven different tones that comprise a specific pattern of whole and half-steps. It differs from the major scale primarily in that its third degree is lowered half a step.
  16. Inflection
    Small alternation of the pitch by a microtonal interval
  17. Subdominant
    Fourth scale step, fa
  18. Transposition
    AKA "bridge" - transitional passage connecting two sections of a composition
  19. Counterpoint
    The art of combining in a single texture two or more melodic lines
  20. Round
    Perpetual canon at the unison in which each voice enters in succession with the same melody (for example, Row, Row, Row Your Boat)
  21. Variation
    The compositional procedure of altering a pre-existing musical idea
  22. Ternary (form)
    Three part (A-B-A) form based on a statement (A), contrast or departure (B), and repetition (A). Also, three-part form
  23. Sequence
    Restatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level
  24. Ostinato
    A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one
  25. Legato
    Smooth and connected; opposite of staccato
  26. Glissando
    Rapid slide through pitches of a scale
  27. Mute
    Mechanical device used to muffle the sound of an instrument
  28. Conductor
    Person who, by means of gestures, leads performances of musical ensembles, especially orchestra, bands, or choruses
  29. Genres
    General term describing the standard category and overall character of a work
  30. Secular Music
    Nonreligious music; when texted, usually in the vernacular
  31. Range
    Distance between the lowest and highest tones of a melody, and instrument, or a voice
  32. Conjunct Motion
    Smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals
  33. Cadence
    Resting place in a musical phrase; music punctuation
  34. Beat
    Regular pulsation; a basic unit of length in musical time
  35. Measures
    Rhythmic group or metrical unit that contains a fixed number of beats, divided on the musical staff by bar lines
  36. Offbeat
    A weak beat or any pulse between the beats in a measured rhythmic pattern
  37. Quadruple Meter
    Basic metrical pattern of four beats to a measure. Also common time
  38. Syncopation
    Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat
  39. Harmony
    The simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords
  40. Scale
    Series of tones in ascending or descending order; may present the notes of a key
  41. Tonic
    The first note of the scale or key, do. Also keynote
  42. Dissonance
    Combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution
  43. Diatonic
    Melody or harmony built from the seven tones of a major or minor scale. A diatonic scale encompasses patterns of seven whole tones and semitones.
  44. Flat (sign)
    Musical symbol that indicates lowering a pitch by a semitone
  45. Pentatonic
    Five-note pattern used in some African, Far Eastern, and Native American musics; can also be found in Western music as an example of exoticism
  46. Key
    Defines the relationship of tones with a common center or tonic
  47. Texture
    The interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) elements in musical fabric
  48. Homophony
    Texture with principle melody and accompanying harmony
  49. Imitation
    Melodic idea presented in one voice and then restated in another, each part continuing as others enter
  50. Form
    Structure and design in music; based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organizing principle of music
  51. Improvisation
    Creation of musical composition while it is being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation, cadenzas of concertos, jazz, and some non-Western musics
  52. Theme
    Melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition
  53. Motive
    SHort melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit
  54. Movement
    Complete, self-contained part within a larger musical work
  55. Staccato
    Short, detached notes, marked with a dot above them
  56. Tremolo
    Rapid repetition of a tone; can be achieved instrumentally or vocally
  57. Arpeggio
    Broken chord in which the individual tones are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously
  58. Baton
    A thin stick, usually painted white, used by conductors
  59. Styles
    Characteristic manner of presentation of musical elements (melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, form, etc)
  60. Opus Number
    A number, often part of the title of a piece, designating the work in chronological relationship to other works by the same composer
  61. Contour
    The overall shape of a melodic line. It can move upward, downward, or remain static
  62. Disjunct motion
    Disjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps
  63. Climax
    The high point in a melodic line or piece of music, usually representing the peak of intensity, range, and dynamics
  64. Accents
    The emphasis on a beat resulting in its being louder or longer than another in a measure
  65. Downbeat
    First beat of the measure, the strongest in any meter
  66. Duple meter
    Basic metrical pattern of two beats to a measure
  67. Simpler meter
    Grouping of rhythms in which the beat is subdivided into two, as in duple, triple, and quadruple meters
  68. Polyrhythm
    The simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters, common in twentieth-century music and in certain African musics
  69. Interval
    Distance and relationship between two pitches
  70. Octave
    Interval between two tones seven diatonic pitches apart; the lower note vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lower
  71. Tonality
    Principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale
  72. Half Steps
    Smallest interval used in the Western system; the octave divides into twelve such intervals; on the piano, the distance between any two adjacent keys, whether black or white.
  73. Chromatic
    Melody or harmony built from many if not all twelve semitones of the octave. A chromatic scale consists of an ascending or descending sequence of semitones
  74. Major (Scale)
    Scale consisting of seven different tones that comprise a specific pattern of whole and half steps. It differs from a minor scale primarily in that its third degree is raised half a step.
  75. Microtones
    Musical interval smaller than a semitone, prevalent in some non-Western musics and in some twentieth-century art music
  76. Dominant
    The fifth scale step, sol
  77. Modulation
    The process of changing from one key to another
  78. Monophony
    Single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment
  79. Homorhythm
    Texture in which all voices, or lines, move together in the same rhythm
  80. Canon
    Type of polyphonic composition in which one musical line strictly imitates another at a fixed distance throughout
  81. Strophic
    Song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza of the poem
  82. Binary (form)
    Two part (A-B) form with each section normally repeated
  83. Thematic Development
    Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm
  84. Call & Response/ Responsorial
    Singing, especially in Gregorian chant, in which a soloist or a group of soloists alternates with the choir; performance style with a singing leader who is imitated by a chorus of followers
  85. Vibrato
    Small fluctuation of pitch used as an expressive device to intensify a sound
  86. Pizzicato
    Performance direction to pluck a string of a bowed instrument with the finger
  87. Double/triple/quadruple-Stopping
    Playing 2/3/4 notes simultaneously on a string instrument
  88. Embouchure
    The placement of the lips, lower facial muscles, and jaws in playing a wind instrument
  89. Sacred music
    Religious or spiritual music, for church or devotional use
  90. Polyphony
    Two or more melodic lines combined into a multi-voiced texture