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  1. Hypothalamus
    Maintains homeostsis

    Posterior Pituitary- Neurohypophysis- hormones are made in the neuron in the hypothalamus

    Anterior Pituitary- Adenohypophysis- hormones are made and released here
  2. Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones secreted into the hypohyseal portal system
    • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
    • target tissue- anterior pit. cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating horome
    • response- increase TSH secretion
    • -hypothalamus stimulates TRH which releases TSH to the thyroid--thyroxin (T3, T4)

    • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-
    • target tissue- anterior pit. cells that secrete growth hormone
    • response- increased growth hormone secretion

    • Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)-
    • target tissue- anterior pit. cells that secrete growth hormone
    • reponse- decreased growth hormone secretion
    • hypothalamus--GHRH/GHIH--GH

    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-
    • target cells- anterior pit. cells that secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • response- increased adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion
    • hypothalamus--CRH--ACTH--Adrenal Cortex

    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-
    • target tissue- anterior pit. cells that secrete luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone
    • response- increased secretion of LH and FSH
    • hypothalamus--GnRH--FSH/LH--ovaries or testes

    • Prolactin-releasing hormone-
    • taget cells- anterior pit. cells that secrete prolactin
    • reponse- increased prolactin secretion

    • Prolactin-inhibiting hormone-
    • taget cells- anterior pit. cells that secrete prolactin
    • reponse- decreased prolactin secretion
    • hypothalamus--PRH/PIH--Prolactin
  3. Posterior Pituitary
    • Hormones:
    • Oxytocin- stimulates the uterine contration and mammary gland; positive feedback

    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)- promotes reabsorption of water in kindey tubules; negative feedback
  4. Anterior Pituitary
    The hypothalamus produces horomones that travel in blood vessels to the anterior pituitary, stimulating it to produce other hormones

    Hormones produced by the hypothalamus are called hypothalamic releasing hormones

    Hypothalamus--releasing or inhibiting hormone--stimulates or inhibits--anterior pituitary--hormone
  5. Anterior Pituitary Hormones that Directly Affect the Body
    Growth Hormones (GH)- stimulates body cells to grow. If too little hormone is produced, pituitary dwarfism results, if to much giant

    Prolactin- stimulates the development of the mammary glands and the production of milk
  6. Anterior Pituitary Hormones that regulate other glands
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)-
    • target tissue- Thyroid gland
    • response- increased thyroid hormone secretion
    • TSH--thyroid--thyronix (T3,T4)

    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)-
    • target tissue- Adrenal cortex
    • response- increased glucocorticoid hormone secretion
    • ACTH--Adrenal Cortex--Zona glomerulosa--Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
    • ACTH--Adrenal Cortex--Zona fasciculata--Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    • ATCH--Adrenal Cortex--Zona reticularis--Androgen

    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)-
    • target tissue- Follicles in ovaries in females; seminiferous tubules in males
    • response- follicle maturation and estrogen secretion in ovaries; sperm cells production in testes

    • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)-
    • target tissue- ovaries in females; testes in males
    • response- Ovulation and progesterone production in ovaries; testosterone synthesis and support for sperm cell production in testes
    • FSH/LH--Ovaries or Testes
  7. Thyroid Gland
    Secreted by Thyroid Follicles

    • Produces:
    • Thyroid Hormones- triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine
    • target tissue- most cells of the body
    • response- increased metabolic rate; essential for normal growth and maturation
    • Iodine is needed to make thyroid hormones

    • Calcitonin
    • Secreted by Parafollicular cells
    • target tissue- bone
    • response- decreased rate of breakdown of bone by osteoclasts; prevention of a large increase in blood Ca2+ levels
    • Isn't regulated by the anterior pit. It's secretion is stimulated by high calcium levels in the blood
  8. Parathyroid Gland
    • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • target tissue- bone, kidney, and small intesting
    • response- increased rate of breakdown of bone by osteoclasts; increased reabsorption of Ca2+ in kidneys; increased absorption Ca2+ from the small intestine; increased vitamin D synthesis; increased blood Ca2+ levels
    • Secretion is regulated by the Ca2+ levels in the blood
  9. Adrenal Cortex
    Produces three steroid hormones

    • Glucocorticoids-cortisol-produced in response it stress
    • target tissue- most tissue
    • response- increased protein and fat breakdown, increased glucose production; inhibition of immune reponse and decreased inflammation

    • Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)- corticoids
    • target tissue- kidney
    • repsonse- increased Na+ reabsorption and K+ and H+ excretion; enhanced water reabsorption

    • Androgens
    • target tissue- many tissue
    • response- females develope some secondary sex characteristic such as body hair
  10. Adrenal Medulla
    • Secrete epinephrine (primarily) and norepinephrine due to stress
    • target cells- heart, blood vessels, liver, adipose cells
    • response- faster heart rate, blood flow, vasoconstriction of blood vessles and increased release of glucose and fatty acids into the blood
  11. Gonads
    LH and FSH from the anterior pit. stimulate the gonads

    LH stimulates the testes to produce androgens and testosterone

    LH stimulates the ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone

    FSH controls gamete (sperm and egg) production

    Hypothalamus--GnRH--anterior pit.--FSH/LH--gonads--gametes (FSH)/sex hormones (LH)
  12. Pancreas
    Islets of Langerhans- group of cells within the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon and are endorcrine glands (ductless)

    Insulin promotes the removal of glucose from the blood for storage; beta islets

    Glucagon raises the level of glucose in the blood; normally secreted between meals to maintain the concentration of glucose in the blood; aplha islets

    • High glucose Insulin (lowers)
    • Normal glucose----------------------------------
    • Low glucose Glucagon (higher)
  13. Image Upload
    • 25) Corpus Callosum
    • 1) Pituitary Gland
    • 2) Anterior Pit. Gland (highly cellular epithelium)
    • 3) Posterior Pit. Gland (fibrous neural tissue)
    • 4) Infundibulum
    • 5-7) Anterior Thyroid
    • 8) Posterior Thyroid (bumps Parathyroid Gland)
    • 9) Andreal Gland
    • 10) Andreal Cortex
    • 12) Andreal Medulla
    • 13) Islets cells
    • 30) kidneys
Card Set:
2011-09-08 18:21:51

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