ch 5 formal logic.txt

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markdoronio
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100453
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ch 5 formal logic.txt
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2011-09-08 02:12:43
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formal logic
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ch 5 formal logic.txt
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  1. Antecedent
    the clause in the major premise of a conditional argument that establishes the conditions that will lead to an outcome; the "if" clause in the major premise of a conditional argument
  2. Categorical argument
    a syllogism or an enthymeme with a major premise that establishes categories in which the subject of the minor premisewill fit. The major premise takes the form "All As are B."
  3. Classical structure of an argument
    the logical form that an argument should take
  4. Cogent argument
    another term for a sound argument
  5. conclusion
    the statement in a syllogism that is the inevitable outcome of accepting the major and minor premises. It must be absolute in a syllogism and maybe provisional in an enthymeme
  6. Conditional Argument
    a syllogism or an enthymeme with a major premise that establishes what will happen if particular conditions exist. The major premise takes the form "If A then B." Also called "hypothetical argument."
  7. Consequent
    the clause in the major premise of a conditional argument that establishes the outcome if the conditions of the antecedent are met; the "then" clause in the major premise of a conditional argument
  8. Deductive reasoning
    argumentation in which the conclusion is included in the premise; an argument that reasons from what is known with certainty in the premises to a conclusion that is known with certainty
  9. enthymeme
    an argument that is missing at least one part of the syllogism, comes to a probable conclusion, or both
  10. Formal Validity
    having the correct structure or "form."
  11. hypothetical argument
    another name for the conditional argument
  12. inductive reasoning
    an argument that comes to a probable instead of an absolute conclusion, or that reasons from what is known in the premises to a conclusion that is unknown in the premises
  13. Major premise
    the part of a syllogism that is an unequivocal general statement about the subject of the argument
  14. major term
    the term in a categorical argument that appears in both the major premise and the conclusion; the category into which both the minor term and middle term fit
  15. materially true argument
    an argument that reaches a truthful conclusion or uses premises that are true, as much as "truth" can be determined
  16. middle term
    the term in a categorical argument that appears in both the major premise and the minor promise; the category into which the minor term fits
  17. minor premise
    the part of a syllogism that is a statement about a specific case, covered by the generalization of the major premise
  18. sound argument
    an argument that is both materially true and formally valid
  19. syllogism
    a deductive argument that includes a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion that is the inevitable result of accepting the premises
  20. valid argument
    an argument that is properly structured, in which all of the logical components fit together corectly

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